Введение

Быстрый старт

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Переводы

Переводы осуществляются добровольцами и не всегда могут быть в актуальном состоянии.

Если вы хотите помочь с переводом руководства на другой язык, посмотрите Документацию по переводу.

Общие сведения

Anki — это программа, облегчающая процесс запоминания. Поскольку используемая техника намного эффективнее традиционных методов обучения, вы можете значительно сократить время потраченное на заучивание материала или значительно увеличить объем выученного.

Любому, кому необходимо что-либо запоминать своей повседневной жизни, Anki будет полезна. Так как программа не зависит от типа содержимого и поддерживает изображения, аудио, видео и научную разметку (по средствам LaTeX), её возможности бесконечны. Например:

  • изучение языка

  • подготовка к экзаменам по медицине и юриспруденции

  • запоминание имен и лиц людей

  • освежить в памяти географию

  • заучивание длинных стихотворений

  • даже отработка гитарных аккордов!

В основе Anki лежат два простых принципа: активная проверка воспоминаний (англ. active recall testing) и интервальные повторения (англ. spaced repetition). Они не известны большинству учеников, несмотря на то, что в научной литературе о них пишется на протяжении многих лет. Понимание того, как они работают, позволит вам запоминать эффективнее.

Активная проверка воспоминаний

Активная проверка воспоминаний подразумевает, что каждый раз, когда мы видим вопрос — мы стараемся вспомнить на него ответ. Это противоположно пассивному обучению, когда мы читаем, смотрим или слушаем что-то без пауз на обдумывание, а знаем ли мы ответ? Исследования показывают, что активная проверка воспоминаний намного эффективней в создании хорошей памяти у человека, чем пассивное обучение. И на это есть две причины:

  • Само по себе вспоминание чего-либо, укрепляет память об этом, повышая шанс вспомнить это вновь.

  • Когда мы не можем ответить на вопрос, это говорит нам о том, что материал необходимо повторить или изучить его дополнительно.

Вы наверняка сталкивались с активной проверкой воспоминаний в школьные годы даже не осознавая этого. Когда учителя задавали вопросы после прочтения главы или давали проверочную работу, они делали это не просто, чтобы увидеть, поняли вы материал или нет. Проверяя вас, они увеличивали шанс, что вы вспомните это в будущем.

Хорошим способом использовать активную проверку воспоминаний в своей учёбе, является использование флэш-карточек (англ. flashcards) . На традиционных бумажных (картонных) карточках вы пишите вопрос на одной стороне, а ответ — на другой. Не переворачивать карточку до тех пор, пока не подумаете над ответом, позволяет вам запоминать более эффективно чем простое просматривание материала.

Используй или потеряешь

Наш мозг — эффективный механизм, и он быстро отказывается от информации, которая не кажется ему полезной. Скорее всего, вы не вспомните, что было у вас на обед в понедельник две недели назад, потому что эта информация обычно бесполезна. А вот если в тот день вы были в фантастическом ресторане и потом ещё две недели рассказывали всем вокруг о том, как это было здорово, вы, вероятно, будете помнить всё в мельчайших подробностях.

Принцип "используй или потеряешь" (англ. use it or lose it) в мозгу распространяется на всё, что мы изучаем. Если вы потратили пол дня заучивая научные термины, а потом две недели не вспоминали об этом, вы, вероятно, забудете большую часть материала. Фактически, исследования показывают, что мы забываем примерно 75% материала, полученного в течение 48 часов. Это может звучать достаточно удручающе, когда вам нужно выучить много информации.

Решение, однако, очень простое: повтор пройденного материала. Пересматривая свеже изученный материал, мы можем значительно снизить количество забытого.

Единственная проблема в том, что обычный просмотр был не достаточно удобным. Если вы используете бумажные флэш-карточки, то их легко просматривать когда их только 30, но когда число возрастёт до 300 или 3000, это станет практически невыполнимым.

Интервальное повторение

Об интервальном эффекте впервые сообщил немецкий психолог Герман Эббингауз в 1885 году. Он заметил, что мы склонны к более эффективному запоминанию, если распределим повторения по времени вместо многократных повторений за один раз. С 1930-х годов было несколько предложений по использованию интервального эффекта для улучшения обучения в которых пришли к тому, что сейчас называется интервальным повторением.

Один пример из 1972 года, когда немецкий ученый Себастьян Лейтнер популяризировал метод интервальных повторений в виде бумажных карточек. Разделяя бумажные карточки на несколько коробок в зависимости от того, удалось или нет вспомнить ответ, можно было сразу получить приблизительное представление о том, насколько хорошо была выучена карточка и когда следует снова пересмотреть её. Это было намного лучше чем складывание всех карточек в одной коробке и в последствии такой подход стал широко использоваться в компьютерных программах имитирующих работу с бумажными флеш-карточками. Однако это довольно грубый подход, поскольку он не может дать точной даты, когда вы должны пересмотреть что-то в следующий раз и не очень хорошо справляется с материалами различной сложности.

Наибольший вклад, за последние 30 лет, внесли авторы SuperMemo, коммерческой программы для изучения флеш-карточек методом интервального повторения. SuperMemo впервые разработала концепцию системы, которая бы отслеживала идеальное время для пересмотра материала (каждой отдельной карточки) и подстраивалась под пользователя, основываясь на результатах его производительности.

В системе интервальных повторений SuperMemo, каждый раз отвечая на вопрос, вы сообщаете программе на сколько легко удалось вспомнить ответ — забыли ли вы его полностью, сделали небольшую ошибку, с трудом вспомнили, вспомнили легко и т. д. Программа использует эти оценки чтобы определить оптимальное время для показа этого вопроса снова. И так как запоминание с каждым удачным воспоминанием становиться всё сильнее, время между показами становится всё дольше и дольше. Таким образом, после первого показа вы можете увидеть ту же карточку через 3 дня, потом через 15, 45 и т. д.

Это было революцией в обучении, поскольку это означало, что материал мог быть изучен и сохранен в памяти с абсолютным минимумом усилий. Всё это объединено в слогане SuperMemo: с интервальными повторениями вы можете забыть о забывании.

Почему Anki?

Хотя и нельзя отрицать огромного влияния SuperMemo в этой области, но и она не лишена недостатков. Программу часто критикуют за глючность и сложность в навигации. Работает только на Windows. Это закрытое программное обеспечение, то есть конечные пользователи не могут расширять его или получать доступ к исходным данным. И хотя очень старые версии доступны бесплатно, они весьма ограничены для современного использования.

Anki решает эти вопросы. Бесплатные клиенты для Anki доступны на большинстве платформ, что не оставит в стороне студентов и учителей с ограниченным бюджетом. Это открытый исходный код с уже процветающей библиотекой дополнений, предоставленных конечными пользователями. Это мультиплатформенность — работает на Windows, Mac OSX, Linux/FreeBSD и некоторых мобильных устройствах. И значительно проще в использовании, чем SuperMemo.

Система интервальных повторений Anki основана на более старой версии алгоритма SuperMemo, который называется SM-2.

Начало работы

Установка и обновление

Инструкции по установке и обновлению смотрите на сайте загрузок.

Видео

Для быстрого погружения в Anki, пожалуйста, посмотрите эти вступительные видео. Некоторые из них были сделаны в предыдущей версии программы Anki, но концепция осталась та же. (На английском. С русскими или англ. субтитрами)

Если YouTube блокируется в вашей стране, вы можете скачать эти видео.

Основные понятия

Карточки

Пара вопрос-ответ называется 'карточкой'. Это название происходит от бумажных флэш-карточек (англ. flashcard) [прим. перев. Ещё встречается перевод как "дидактическая карточка"] с вопросом на одной стороне и ответом на обратной. В Anki карточка на самом деле не выглядит как бумажная карточка и когда отображается ответ, то вопрос остается видимым (по умолчанию, такое поведение может быть изменено). Например, если вы изучаете основы химии, то можете увидеть такой вопрос:

В: Химический символ кислорода?

После обдумывания и принятия решения, что ответом является О, вы нажимаете кнопку показа ответа и Anki показывает вам:

В: Химический символ кислорода?
О: О

Убедившись в своей правоте вы можете сообщить Anki, насколько легко вам было вспомнить ответ, и Anki подберёт время следующего показа карточки.

Колоды

'Колода' — это группа карточек. Вы можете размещать карточки в разных колодах для изучения отдельных частей вашей коллекции карточек, вместо того чтобы учить все сразу. У каждой колоды могут быть разные настройки, например, сколько новых карточек показывать каждый день или как долго следует ждать до следующего показа карточки.

Колоды могут содержать другие колоды, что позволяет вам организовать их в древовидную структуру. В Anki используется "::" как показатель разных уровней. Так в названии колоды "Китайский::Ханзи" отмечается, что колода "Ханзи" является частью колоды "Китайский".

Чтобы собирать колоды в дерево, вы можете либо именовать их с "::" между каждым уровнем, либо мышкой перетаскивать и отпускать из списка колод. Колоды, вложенные в другие колоды (в названии которых хоть раз встречается "::") часто называют 'подколодами', а колоды верхнего уровня иногда называют 'суперколодами' или 'родительскими'.

Anki запускается с единственной колодой под названием "по умолчанию" (англ. default); все карточки, которые каким-то образом отделились от других колод, будут попадать сюда. Anki скроет колоду по умолчанию, если в ней нет карт и вы добавили другие колоды. Или же вы можете переименовать эту колоду и использовать ее для других карточек.

Колоды больше всего подходят для объединения широких категорий карточек, а не для таких конкретных тем, как "пищевые глаголы" или "урок 1". Более подробную информацию об этом см. в разделе правильное использование колод.

Информацию о том, как колоды влияют на порядок отображения в них карточек, смотрите в разделе порядок отображения

Записи и поля

При создании флэш-карточек часто бывает необходимо сделать более одной карточки, относящихся к одной информации. Например, если вы изучаете французский и узнаёте, что слово "bonjour" означает "здравствуйте", то вы можете создать одну карточку, которая показывает вам "bonjour" и просит вас вспомнить "здравствуйте", а другую карточку, которая показывает вам "здравствуйте" и просит вас вспомнить "bonjour". Одна карточка проверяет вашу способность узнавать иностранное слово, а другая — умение воспроизвести его.

Используя бумажные флэш-карточки, у вас только один вариант — написать всю информацию дважды, по одному разу на каждой карточке. Некоторые компьютерные программы облегчают создание флэш-карточек, предоставляя возможность перевернуть лицевую и оборотную стороны карточки. Эта ситуация получше, чем с бумажными карточками, но есть два основных недостатка:

  • Поскольку подобные программы отслеживают вашу способность к распознаванию и воспроизведению информации по-отдельности, карточки, как правило, не показываются в оптимальное время, что означает, что вы либо забываете больше чем хотелось, либо занимаетесь больше, чем необходимо.

  • Поменять местами вопрос и ответ можно только в том случае, если вам нужна в точности одинаковая информация на обеих сторонах. Это означает, что вы не можете, например, отобразить дополнительную информацию на обратной стороне каждой карточки.

Anki решает эти проблемы, позволяя вам разделить содержимое ваших карточек на отдельные части информации. Вы можете указать Anki, какие части информации вы хотите на каждой из карточек и Anki позаботится о создании их для вас, а так же обновит их если вы сделаете какие-либо изменения в будущем.

Представьте, что мы хотим поучить французский словарь и добавлять номер страницы на обратной стороне каждой карточки. Мы хотим, чтобы наши карточки выглядели так:

В: Bonjour
О: Здравствуйте
   Страница #12

И:

В: Здравствуйте
О: Bonjour
   Страница #12

В этом примере у нас есть три, связанных между собой, части информации: французское слово, русское значение и номер страницы. Объединив их вместе, они будут выглядеть вот так:

Французский: Bonjour
Русский: Здравствуйте
Страница: 12

В Anki эта связанная информация называется 'запись', а каждый фрагмент информации называется 'поле'. Так что мы можем сказать, что у этого типа записи имеется три поля: французский, русский и страница.

Чтобы добавлять или изменять поля, нажмите кнопку "Поля…​" в процессе добавления или изменения записи. Дополнительные сведения о полях см. в разделе Настройка полей.

Типы карточек

Для того чтобы Anki создавала карточки на основе наших записей, мы должны предоставить ей шаблон (англ. blueprint) в котором указано, какие поля должны быть показаны на лицевой или обратной стороне каждой карточки. Этот шаблон и называется 'типом карточки'. Каждый тип записи может иметь одну или несколько типов карточек; когда вы добавляете запись, Anki создаст по одной карточке для каждого типа карточек.

У каждого типа карточки есть два 'шаблона', один для вопроса и один для ответа. В приведённом выше французском примере мы хотели, чтобы карта распознавания выглядела так:

В: Bonjour
О: Здравствуйте
   Страница #12

Для этого мы можем задать шаблоны вопросов и ответов следующим образом:

В: {{Французский}}
О: {{Русский}}<br>
   Страница #{{Страница}}

Заключая название поля в двойные фигурные скобки, мы указываем Anki заменять этот раздел фактической информацией из этого поля. Всё, что не окружено фигурными скобками остаётся в неизменном виде на каждой карточке. (Например, мы не должны вводить "Страница #" в поле "Страница" при добавлении материала — он добавляется автоматически на каждую карточку.) <br> — это специальный код, который указывает Anki перейти к следующей строке; дополнительные сведения доступны в разделе Шаблоны карточек.

The production card templates work in a similar way:

В: {{Французский}}
О: {{Русский}}<br>
   Страница #{{Страница}}

Однажды создав тип карточки, в дальнейшем, каждый раз добавляя новую запись, карточка будет создаваться на основе этого типа карточки. Типы карточек упрощают содержание в единообразном состоянии оформления ваших карточек и могут значительно облегчить добавление информации.

Для добавления и изменения типов карточек, нажмите кнопку "Карточки…​" во время добавления или изменения записи. Дополнительные сведения о типах карточек см. в разделе Шаблоны карточек.

Типы записей

Anki позволяет создавать различные типы записей для различного материала. У каждого типа записи имеется свой набор полей и типов карточек. Хорошей идеей будет создание отдельных типов записей для каждой обширной темы которую вы изучаете. Для этого, в приведённом выше французском примере, можно создать тип записи с названием "Французский". Если бы мы хотели изучать столицы, мы могли бы создать для этого отдельный тип записи, с такими полями, как "Страна" и "Столица".

Когда Anki проверяет наличие дубликатов, то сравнивает только другие заметки того же типа. Так, если вы добавите столицу под названием "Апельсин" используя тип записи столицы, то вы не увидите сообщение о дубликате, когда прийдёт время учить как сказать "апельсин" по-французски.

При создании новой коллекции [прим. перев. профиля], Anki автоматически добавляет некоторые стандартные типы записей в неё. Эти типы записей предназначены облегчить работу с Anki для новых пользователей, но в дальнейшем рекомендуется определить свои собственные типы записей для того материала который вы изучаете.

Основная
Содержит поля Лицо и Оборот, и будет создавать одну карточку. Текст напечатанный в поле Лицо будет отображаться на лицевой стороне карточки, а текст который вы введёте в поле Оборот будет отображаться на обратной стороне карточки.

Основная (с обратной карточкой)
Как Основная, только создаёт две карточки для введённого вами текста: одну из лицо→оборот и одну из оборот→лицо.

Основная (обратная по выбору)
Это лицо→оборот карточка, а карточка оборот→лицо при необходимости. Для этого есть третье поле под названием "Добавить обратную". Если в это поле будет введён какой-либо текст [прим. перев. Любой текст, чтобы эта функция сработала], обратная карточка будет создана. Дополнительные сведения об этом см. в разделе Шаблоны карточек

Задание с пропусками
Тип записи который облегчает выбор текста и превращение его в обучающие пропуски (англ. cloze deletion) (например, "Человек приземлился на Луну в […​] году" → "Человек приземлился на Луну в 1969 году"). Дополнительные сведения см. в разделе заполнение пропусков

Чтобы добавить свои типы записей и изменить существующие, можно использовать Инструменты → Управлять типами записей из главного окна Anki.

Записи и типы записей являются общими для всей коллекции, а не ограничиваются отдельной колодой. Это означает, что вы можете использовать несколько различных типов записей в определенной колоде или иметь разные карточки, сгенерированные на основе одной записи в разных колодах. При добавлении записей с помощью окна Добавить, можно выбрать какой использовать тип записи и какую колоду, и эти варианты полностью независимы друг от друга. Можно также изменить тип записи для некоторых записей после того, как они уже были созданы.

Коллекция

Ваша "коллекция" — это все материалы, хранящиеся в Анки — ваши карточки, записи, колоды, типы записей, настройки колод и так далее.

Общие колоды

Вы можете посмотреть видео про Общие колоды и Основы повторений на YouTube.

Самый простой способ начать заниматься с Anki — скачать колоду карточек которой кто-то поделился:

  1. Нажмите кнопку "Скачать колоду" ниже списка колод.

  2. Когда вы нашли интересующую вас колоду, нажмите кнопку "Скачать", чтобы скачать пакет колоды.

  3. Дважды щелкните по скачанному пакету, чтобы загрузить его в Anki, или импортируйте его нажав Файл→Импортировать.

Пожалуйста, обратите внимание, что в настоящее время нет возможности добавлять общие колоды непосредственно в вашу учетную запись AnkiWeb. Вы должны импортировать их с помощью настольной версии программы, а затем синхронизировать их для передачи в AnkiWeb.

Создание собственной колоды является наиболее эффективным способом изучения сложной темы. Такие предметы, как языки и науки, не могут быть поняты просто запоминанием фактов — они требуют объяснений и контекста, чтобы учить их эффективно. Более того, сама информация заставляет вас решать, каковы ключевые моменты, что приведет к лучшему пониманию.

Изучая язык, для вас может быть заманчивой возможность скачать длинный список слов и их переводов, но так вы выучите язык не лучше, чем запоминая научные уравнения выучите астрофизику. Чтобы учиться правильно, нужны учебники, учителя или практика в реальных условиях (англ. exposure to real-world sentences).

Не запоминай, если не понимаешь.
--SuperMemo

Большинство общих колод созданы людьми, которые изучат материал вне Anki — по учебникам, на уроках, по телевизора и т.д. Они выбирают интересные для себя моменты из того, что они учат, и добавляют их в Anki. Они не утруждают себя добавлением справочной информации или пояснений к карточкам, поскольку они уже понимают материал. Поэтому, когда кто-то другой скачивает их колоду и пытается ее использовать, для них это оказывается очень трудным поскольку отсутствует необходимый информационный фон и пояснения.

Это не значит, что общие колоды бесполезны — просто для сложных предметов их следует использовать как 'дополнение' к внешнему материалу, а не как его 'замена'. Если вы изучаете учебник ABC, а кто-то поделится колодой с основными идеями из ABC — это отличный способ сэкономить немного время. И для простых предметов, которые по сути являются списком фактов, таких как названия столиц или фактов из викторин в пабе (англ. pub quiz trivia), вам, вероятно, не нужен внешний материал. Но если вы попытаетесь изучать сложные темы без внешнего материала, то, вероятно, вас ждет неутешительный результат.

Изучение

Когда вы нашли колоду которая вам нравится или добавили несколько записей самостоятельно — пора начинать обучение.

Колоды

Заучивание карточек в Anki осуществляется в пределах выбранной в настоящий момент колоды и любых подколод которые она содержит.

На экране колод ваши колоды представлены в виде списка. В нем присутствуют два числовых столбца: 'К просмотру' и 'Новые'. 'К просмотру' — это количество ожидающих повторения и уже разучиваемые карточки. 'Новые' — это количество новых карточек, которые подготовлены к заучиванию в этот день.

При нажатии на колоду она станет 'текущей колодой' и Anki переключится на экран изучения. Вы можете вернуться к списку колод, чтобы изменить выбранную в данный момент колоду в любое время, нажав на 'Колоды' в верхней части главного окна. (Можно также использовать действие Учить колоду для выбора новой колоды с клавиатуры или нажать клавишу 's' для изучения выбранной в данный момент колоды.)

Можно нажать кнопку шестерёнки справа от колоды, чтобы переименовать или удалить колоду, изменить её параметры или экспортировать её.

Со старым планировщиком, если в колоде имеются подколоды, карточки отобразятся из каждой колоды по очереди.

С новым планировщиком, если в колоде имеются подколоды, карточки для повтора теперь берутся сразу со всех дочерних колод. Лимит показов дочерних колод игнорируется — применяется только лимит колоды, на которую вы щелкнули.

Общие сведения об изучении

После нажатия на колоду для изучения, вы увидите экран на котором показано сколько карточек у вас запланировано на сегодня. Это называется экраном 'обзора колоды'. Карточки разделены на три типа:

  • Новые — это карточки, которые вы скачали или добавлены вручную, но никогда раньше не изучали.

  • Изучаемые — это карточки, которые недавно были показаны первый раз и сейчас в процессе изучения.

  • Повторяемые — это карточки, которые были изучены ранее, а теперь должны быть пересмотрены, чтобы вы их не забыли.

Чтобы начать сеанс заучивания, нажмите кнопку Учить. Anki будет показывать вам карточки до тех пор, пока запланированные на сегодня карточки не закончатся.

В процессе изучения можно вернуться к обзору, нажав клавишу "s" на клавиатуре.

Вопросы

При показе карточки, сперва показывается только вопрос. Подумав над ответом, нажмите либо кнопку Показать ответ, либо пробел на клавиатуре — будет показан ответ. Это нормально, если вам потребуется немного времени, чтобы вспомнить ответ, но, как правило, если вы не можете ответить в течение 10 секунд, скорее всего, лучше сдаться и показать ответ, чем продолжать пытаться его вспомнить.

Когда покажется ответ, вам следует сравнить его с тем который вы придумали и сообщить Anki, на сколько точно вы запомнили. Если вы не уверены в точности сравнения ответов, вы можете указать Anki предлагать вам набирать ответ с клавиатуры, а не просто показывать его вам.

Количество кнопок, доступных для оценки ответа, зависит от того, является ли карточка 'изучаемой' или 'повторяемой'.

Обучение

При изучении новых или переучивании забытых карточек, Anki будет показывать карточки по одному или нескольку раз, чтобы помочь вам их запомнить. Каждый такой показ называется 'обучающий шаг'. По умолчанию установлено два шага: 1 минута и 10 минут. Количество и продолжительность таких шагов можно изменить в настройках колоды.

В процессе обучения доступны три кнопки оценки:

Снова — перемещает карточку обратно к первому шагу.

Хорошо — перемещает карточку на следующий шаг. Если карточка была на последнем шаге, то она переводится [прим. перев. из изучаемой] в повторяемую карточку (она 'выпускник' (англ. graduate)). По умолчанию, карточка достигнув конца обучающих шагов, будет показана снова на следующий день, затем задержки между показами будут увеличиваться (смотрите следующий раздел).

Легко — немедленно переводит карточку в повторяемую, даже если остались ещё шаги. По умолчанию, карточка будет показана повторно через 4 дня, затем задержки между показами будут увеличиваться. В старом планировщике, кнопка "лёгко" не будет показана, если вы в режиме переучивания, и это задаст тот же интервал, что и "хорошо". С новым планировщиком, когда карточки в режиме переучивания, кнопка "легко" увеличивает интервал на 1 день.

Когда карточки показываются в первый раз, они начинают на первом шаге. Это означает, что ответив Хорошо на карточке с первого раза покажет её ещё раз через 10 минут, а первый шаг в 1 минуту будет пропущен. Если вы нажмёте Снова, карточка вернется через 1 минуту.

Вы можете использовать клавиши 1, 2 и 3 на клавиатуре, для выбора конкретной кнопки, где 1 — это Снова. Нажатие клавиши пробела выбирает Хорошо.

Если нет других карточек для показа, Anki снова покажет изучаемые карточки, даже если их задержка полностью не закончилась. Если вы предпочитаете ждать всю обучающую задержку, вы можете изменить поведение в настройках.

Повторение

Когда карточка уже была изучена и готова к повторению, есть четыре кнопки для оценки ответа:

Снова — помечает ваш ответ как неверный и указывает Anki чаще показывать карточку в будущем. Карточка считается 'забытой' (англ. lapsed). Смотрите раздел забытые для получения более подробной информации о том, как обрабатываются забытые повторения.

Трудно — показывает карточку с чуть большей задержкой, чем в прошлый раз и указывает Anki чаще показывать карточку в будущем.

Хорошо — сообщает Anki, что последняя задержка была примерно правильной и лёгкость карточки не нуждается в уменьшении или увеличении. При значении лёгкости по умолчанию, задержка перед следующим показом карточки будет примерно в 2,5 раза дольше чем в предыдущий раз, так что если бы вы в прошлый раз ждали 10 дней, чтобы увидеть карточку, то следующая задержка составит около 25 дней.

Легко — сообщает Anki, что вы сочли задержку слишком короткой. Карточка будет запланирована дальше, чем при ответе 'Хорошо' и в последствии Anki будет включать её в расписание чуть реже. Поскольку 'Легко' быстро увеличивает задержку, она лучше всего подходит для, действительно, самых простых карточек. Обычно вместо этого ответа, стоит использовать ответ 'Хорошо'.

Как и с изучаемыми карточками, вы можете использовать клавиши 1-4 на клавиатуре для выбора ответа. Нажатие клавиши пробела выбирает Хорошо.

Due Counts

Когда показывается только вопрос, Anki показывает в нижней части экрана три числа вроде 12 + 34 + 56. Они обозначают новые карточки, изучаемые карточки и повторяемые карточки. Если вы предпочитаете не видеть этих цифр, вы можете отключить их в настройках Anki.

В старом планировщике, считается количество просмотров необходимое для завершения всех карточек в этой очереди, а не количество самих карточек. Если задано несколько шагов для забытых карточек, то число увеличивается более чем на один, если вы не справились с карточкой, так как она должна быть показана несколько раз.

В новом планировщике, считается количество карточек, так что число всегда увеличивается на один, независимо от оставшихся шагов.

Когда отображается ответ, Anki выводит примерное время следующего показа карточки над каждой кнопкой. Если вы предпочитаете не видеть оценок, вы можете отключить их в настройках Anki.

Кроме того, Anki случайным образом не много изменяет время следующего показа, чтобы предотвратить случаи, когда карточки добавленные вместе и всегда получавшие одинаковые оценки продолжали бы и дальше показываться одна за другой. Эти изменения не отражаются в оценках времени, а применяются после выбора кнопки.

Правка и ещё

Для изменения текущей заметки нажмите кнопку Правка в левом нижнем углу. Завершив редактирование вы будете возвращены к обучению. Экран редактирования работает аналогично экрану добавления записи

В правом нижнем углу экрана просмотра находится кнопка Ещё. Эта кнопка предоставляет несколько других операций, которые можно выполнить с текущей карточкой или записью:

  • Поставить флаг: Ставит цветную метку на карточку или убирает её. Метки будут отображаться во время изучения, а в окне Обзора можно выполнять поиск отмеченных карточек. Это полезно, когда вы хотите выполнить некоторое действие над карточкой позднее, например, когда вернётесь домой, поискать какое-нибудь слово.

  • Отложить карточку / запись: Прячет карточку или все карточки записи от показа до следующего дня. (Если вы хотите вернуть карточки раньше, нажмите кнопку "вернуть" в окне обзора колоды.) Это полезно, если в данный момент вы не можете ответить на карточку или хотите вернуться к ней в другой раз. Откладывание также может произойти автоматически для карточек одной записи.

    Со старым планировщиком, если карточки находятся в процессе изучения на момент их откладывания, то сперва они перемещаются обратно в очередь новых карточек или очередь повторяемых перед тем как быть отложенными.

    Однако с планировщиком 2.1, откладывание карточек не сбрасывает шаги изучения карточки.

  • Set Due Card: Make cards review cards, and make them due on a certain date.

  • Исключить карточку / запись: Прячет карточку или все карточки записи от показа до тех пор, пока они не будут включены вручную (нажатием кнопки исключения–включения в окне обзора). Это полезно, если вы не хотите повторять запись некоторое время, но не хотите удалять её. Со старым планировщиком, если карточки находятся в процессе изучения на момент их исключения, то сперва они перемещаются обратно в очередь новых карточек или очередь повторяемых перед исключением.

    Однако с планировщиком 2.1, исключение карточек не сбрасывает шаги изучения карточки.

  • Настройки: Редактировать настройки текущей колоды.

  • Сведения о карточке: Отображает статистику по карточке.

  • Отметить запись: Добавляет текущей записи метку "marked", что позволяет легко найти её в обозревателе. Это схоже с отметкой отдельных карточек, только работает с метками (англ. tag), поэтому, если в записи есть несколько карточек, все они появятся в поиске по метке marked. Большинству пользователей лучше использовать флаги — отметки, в основном, оставлены для совместимости с более старыми версиями Anki.

  • Удалить запись: Удаляет запись и все её карточки.

  • Повторное воспроизведение аудио: Если у карточки есть аудио на лицевой или оборотной стороне, воспроизводит его повторно.

  • Аудио на паузу: приостанавливает воспроизведение звука.

  • Аудио -5с / +5с: Переход назад / вперед на 5 секунд в воспроизводимом аудио.

  • Записать свой голос: Запись с микрофона для проверки произношения. Это временная запись и она исчезнет при переходе к следующей карточке. Если вы хотите добавить на карточку постоянную аудио-запись, то это можно сделать в окне редактирования.

  • Воспроизвести свой голос: Воспроизвести предыдущую запись своего голоса (предположительно, после показа ответа).

Порядок отображения

В процессе изучения показываются карточки из текущей выбранной колоды и всех колод, которые она содержит. Таким образом, если вы выберете колоду "Французский", подколоды "Французский::Словарь" и "Французский::Моя тетрадь::Урок 1" также будут показаны.

Новые и повторяемые карточки Anki выбирает из расположенных в алфавитном порядке колод. Так в приведенном выше примере, сначала вы увидите карточки из колоды "Моя тетрадь", затем "Словарь", и, наконец "Французский". Это можно использовать для управления порядком отображения карточек, помещая карточки с большим приоритетом в колоды, находящиеся выше по списку. При компьютерной сортировке текста по алфавиту, символ "-" идёт перед буквами алфавита, а "~" — после них [прим. перев. но перед русскими. В русских (кириллических) названиях колод вместо "~" можно использовать знак "№"]. Значит, вы можете назвать колоду "-Французский", чтобы она отображалась первой, а другую — "№Словарь", чтобы отображать её после всего остального.

Новые и повторяемые карточки выбираются отдельно, и Anki не будет ждать, пока закончатся обе очереди, прежде чем перейти к следующей колоде, так что возможно, вам будут показываться новые карточки из одной колоды и повторяемые из другой, и наоборот. Если вам это не подходит, нажимайте непосредственно на колоду которую хотите изучать, а не на родительские колоды.

Изучаемые карточки, поскольку у них, так сказать, жесткий временной режим, выбираются из всех колод одновременно и отображаются в порядке своей очереди.

Для управления порядком, в котором появляются карточки из определённой колоды, или изменения порядка показа новых карточек из упорядоченного в произвольный, смотрите в настройках колоды. Ещё более точно настроить порядок появления новых карточек можно в обозревателе.

Связанные и отложенные

Вспомним из основ, что Anki может создавать более одной карточки из каждой записи, например, карточки лицо→оборот и оборот→лицо, или два разных заполнения пропусков из одного текста. Такие карточки, относящиеся к одной записи, называются 'связанными'.

Отвечая на одну из связанных карточек, Anki может предотвращать показ связанных с ней карточек в этот же день, автоматически 'откладывая' их. Отложенные карточки скрыты от повтора до тех пор, пока на часах не наступит следующий день или вы вручную не вернёте их при помощи кнопки "Вернуть" отображаемой внизу экрана обзора колоды. Anki отложит связанные карточки даже если они находятся в разных колодах (например, если вы используете функцию подмена колоды).

Вы можете включить откладывание в окне настроек колоды — отдельно для новых и повторяемых карточек.

Anki будет откладывать связанные карточки, которые являются новыми или повторяемыми. Изучаемые карточки не будут скрываться, поскольку время для них имеет существенное значение. С другой стороны, заучивая карточку которая является изучаемой, любые новые/повторяемые карточки будут отложены.

Клавиатурные сокращения

Для большинства общих действий в Anki имеются клавиатурные сокращения. Многие из них легко обнаружить в элементах интерфейса: рядом с пунктами меню отображаются их клавиатурные сокращения, а наведение курсора мыши на кнопку, как правило, показывает её клавиатурное сокращение во всплывающей подсказке.

Во время обучения, как Пробел так и клавиша Enter покажут ответ. Когда покажется ответ, вы можете использовать клавиши Пробела

или Enter для выбора кнопки Хорошо. Для выбора конкретной кнопки лёгкости можно использовать клавиши 14. Многим людям удобно отвечать на большинство карточек клавишей Пробела и держать один палец на цифре 1, на случай если забыли ответ.

Пункт "Учить колоду" в меню Инструменты позволяет вам быстро переключиться на другую колоду с помощью клавиатуры. Вызвать его можно клавишей '/'. Будучи открытым, в нём отображаются все ваши колоды и строка фильтра сверху. По мере ввода символов, Anki будет отображать только те колоды которые соответствуют введённым вами символам. Можно добавить пробел для разделения нескольких условий поиска, и Anki покажет только колоды, соответствующие всем условиям. Так "яп 1" или "ок1 яп" в обоих случаях будут соответствовать колоде "Японский::Урок1".

Отставание

Если вы отстали от графика повторения, Anki отдаст предпочтение карточкам, которые ждут дольше всех. Она выбирает карточки ожидающие дольше всех и показывает их в случайном порядке до тех пор, пока не будет исчерпан суточный лимит показов. Такой порядок гарантирует, что никакие карточки не останутся в состоянии вечного ожидания, однако это означает, что если вы добавите новых карточек, то не увидите их до тех пор, пока не наверстаете отставание.

Если вы хотите изменить порядок просмотра просроченных карточек, вы можете это сделать с помощью создания фильтрованной колоды.

Отвечая на карточки, некоторое время находившиеся в ожидании, Anki учитывает эту задержку при определении времени следующего показа карточки. Дополнительную информацию смотрите в разделе про алгоритм интервальных повторений Anki.

Добавление/изменение

Добавление карточек и записей

Вспомним из основ, что в Anki мы добавляем записи, а не карточки, и уже из них Anki создаёт нам карточки. Нажав 'Добавить' в главном окне появится окно добавления записей.

The top left of the window shows us the current note type. If it does not say "Basic," then you may have added some note types when you downloaded a shared deck. The text below assumes that "Basic" is selected.

The top right of the window shows us the deck cards will be added to. If you would like to add cards to a new deck, you can click on the deck name button and then click "Add".

Below the note type, you'll see some buttons, and an area labelled "Front" and "Back". Front and Back are called 'fields', and you can add, remove, and rename them by clicking the "Fields…​" button above.

Below the fields is another area labelled "Tags". Tags are labels that you can attach to your notes, to make organizing and finding notes easier. You can leave the tags blank if you wish, or add one or more of them. Tags are separated by a space. If the tags area says

словарь уточнить_у_репетитора

…​то у записи которую вы добавите будет две метки.

When you have entered text into the front and back, you can click the "Add" button or press Ctrl+Enter (Command+Enter on a Mac) to add the note to your collection. When you do so, a card will be created as well, and placed into the deck you chose. If you would like to edit a card you added, you can click the history button to search for a recently added card in the browser.

Anki checks the first field for uniqueness, so it will warn you if you enter two cards with a Front field of "apple" (for example). The uniqueness check is limited to the current note type, so if you're studying multiple languages, two cards with the same Front would not be listed as duplicates as long as you had a different note type for each language.

Anki does not check for duplicates in other fields automatically for efficiency reasons, but the browser has a "Find Duplicates" function, which you can run periodically.

Дополнительные сведения о кнопках между типом записи и полями см. в разделе редактор.

Разным людям нравится повторять по-разному,но есть некоторые общие концепции, о которых следует помнить. Отличное введение --- эта статья на сайте SuperMemo. В частности:

  • Keep it simple: The shorter your cards, the easier they are to review. You may be tempted to include lots of information "just in case," but reviews will quickly become painful.

  • Don't memorize without understanding: If you are studying a language, try to avoid large lists of words. The best way to learn languages is in context, which means seeing those words used in a sentence. Likewise, imagine you're studying a computer course. If you attempt to memorize the mountain of acronyms, you'll find it very difficult to make progress. But if you take the time to understand the concepts behind the acronyms, learning the acronyms will become a lot easier.

Добавление типа записи

While basic note types are sufficient for simple cards with only a word or phrase on each side, as soon as you find yourself wanting to include more than one piece of information on the front or back, it's better to split that information up into more fields.

You may find yourself thinking "but I only want one card, so why can't I just include the audio, a picture, a hint, and the translation in the Front field?" If you'd prefer to do that, that's fine. But the disadvantage of that approach is that all the information is stuck together. If you wanted to sort your cards by the hint, you wouldn't be able to do that as it is mixed in with the other content. You also wouldn't be able to do things such as moving the audio from the front to the back, except by laboriously copying and pasting it for every note. By keeping content in separate fields, you make it much easier to adjust the layout of your cards in the future.

To create a new type of note, choose Tools → Manage Note Types from the main Anki window. Then click "Add" to add a new type of note. You will now see another screen that gives you a choice of note types to base the new type on. "Add" means to base the newly created type on one that comes with Anki. "Clone" means to base the newly created type on one that is already in your collection. For instance, if you'd created a French vocab type already, you might want to clone that when creating a German vocab type.

After choosing OK, you will be asked to name the new type. The subject material that you are studying is a good choice here – things like "Japanese", "Trivia", and so on. Once you have chosen a name, close the Note Types window, and you will return to the adding window.

Настройка полей

To customize fields, click the "Fields…​" button when adding or editing a note, or while the note type is selected in the Manage Note Types window.

You can add, remove, or rename fields by clicking the appropriate buttons. To change the order in which the fields appear in this dialog and the add notes dialog, you can use the reposition button, which asks for the numerical position you want the field to have. So if you want to change a field to be the new first field, enter "1".

Не используйте в качестве имен полей 'Tags', 'Type', 'Deck', 'Card' или 'FrontSide', так как это специальные поля и они не будут работать правильно.

Опции в нижней части экрана позволяют изменять различные свойства полей, которые будут использоваться при добавлении и редактировании карточек. Здесь вы не настраиваете то, что появляется на карточках при повторении; для этого смотрите раздел шаблоны.

Editing Font allows you to customize the font and size used when editing notes. This is useful if you want to make unimportant information smaller, or increase the size of foreign characters which are hard to read. The changes you make here do not affect how cards appear when reviewing: to do that, please see the templates section. If you have enabled the "type in the answer" function, however, the text you type will use the font size defined here. (For information about how to change the actual font face when typing the answer, please see the checking your answer section.)

Сортировать по этому полю…​ указывает Anki отображать это поле в столбце Поле сортировки обозревателя. Это можно использовать для сортировки карточек по этому полю. Одновременно только одно поле может быть полем сортировки.

When Remember last input…​ is checked, Anki will not clear out this field's content after a note is added. If you find yourself entering the same content into multiple notes, you may find this useful.

Reverse text direction is useful if you are studying languages that display text from right to left (RTL), such as Arabic or Hebrew. This setting currently only controls editing; to make sure the text displays correctly during review, you'll need to adjust your template.

After you have added fields, you will probably want to add them to the front or back of your cards. For more information on that, please see the templates section.

Changing Deck / Note Type

While adding, you can click on the top left button to change note type, and the top right button to change deck. The window that opens up will not only allow you to select a deck or note type, but also to add new decks or manage your note types.

Правильное использование колод

Decks are designed to divide your content up into broad categories that you wish to study separately, such as English, Geography, and so on. You may be tempted to create lots of little decks to keep your content organized, such as "my geography book chapter 1", or "food verbs", but this is not recommended, for the following reasons:

  • Lots of little decks mean you end up reviewing cards in a recognizable order. Whether it is because you are clicking on each deck in turn (which is slow) or you have added a number of decks under a single parent deck, you will end up seeing all the "chapter 1" or "food verb" cards together. This makes it easier to answer the cards, as you can guess them from the context, which leads to weaker memories. When you need to recall the word or phrase outside Anki, you won't have the luxury of being shown related content first!

  • While less of a problem than it was in earlier Anki versions, adding hundreds of decks may cause slowdowns, and very large deck trees with thousands of items can actually break the display of the deck list in the current implementation.

Instead of creating lots of little decks, it's a better idea to use tags and/or fields to classify your content. Instead of creating a "food verbs" decks for example, you could add those cards to your main language study deck, and tag the cards with "food" and "verb". Each card can have multiple tags, which means you can do things like search for all verbs, or all food-related vocabulary, or all verbs that are related to food.

For those who like to stay very organized, you can add fields to your notes to classify your content, such as "book", "page", and so on. Anki supports searching in specific fields, which means you can do a search for "book:'my book' page:63" and immediately find what you're looking for.

Anki's custom study and filtered deck features make this especially powerful, as you can create temporary decks out of search terms. This allows you to review your content mixed together in a single deck most of the time (for optimum memory), but also create temporary decks when you need to focus on particular material, such as before a test. The general rule is that if you always want to be able to study some content separately, it should be in a normal deck; if you only occasionally need to be able to study it separately (for a test, when under a backlog, etc.), then tags, fields, and filtered decks are better.

Features

The editor is shown when adding notes, editing a note during reviews, or browsing.

On the top left are two buttons, which open the fields and cards windows.

On the right are buttons that control formatting. Bold, italic and underline work like they do in a word processing program. The next two buttons allow you to subscript or superscript text, which is useful for chemical compounds like H2O or simple mathematical equations like x2.

The Fx button clears any formatting in the currently selected text — including the colour of the text, whether the selected text is bold, etc.

The next two buttons allow you to change text colour.

The […​] button is visible when a cloze note type is selected.

You can use the paper-clip button to select audio, images, and videos from your computer's hard drive and attach them to your notes. Alternatively, you can copy the media onto your computer's clipboard (for instance, by right-clicking an image on the web and choosing 'Copy Image') and paste it into the field that you want to place it in. For more information about media, please see the media section.

The microphone icon allows you to record from your computer's microphone and attach the recording to the note.

The last button shows more advanced features, such as editing the underlying HTML of a field, and shortcuts to add MathJax or LaTeX to your notes.

Most of the buttons have shortcut keys. You can hover the mouse cursor over a button to see its shortcut.

When pasting text, Anki will keep most formatting by default. If you hold down the Shift key while pasting, Anki will strip most of the formatting. Under Preferences, you can toggle "Paste without shift key strips formatting" to modify the default behaviour.

Заполнение пропусков

'Cloze deletion' is the process of hiding one or more words in a sentence. For example, if you have the sentence:

Canberra was founded in 1913.

…​and you create a cloze deletion on "1913", then the sentence would become:

Canberra was founded in [...].

Sometimes sections that have been removed in this fashion are said to be 'occluded'.

For more information on why you might want to use cloze deletion, see Rule 5 here.

Anki provides a special cloze deletion type of note, to make creating clozes easy. To create a cloze deletion note, select the Cloze note type, and type some text into the "Text" field. Then drag the mouse over the text you want to hide to select it, and click the […​] button. Anki will replace the text with:

Canberra was founded in {{c1::1913}}.

The "c1" part means that you have created one cloze deletion on the sentence. You can create more than one deletion if you'd like. For example, if you select Canberra and click […​] again, the text will now look like:

{{c2::Canberra}} was founded in {{c1::1913}}.

When you add the above note, Anki will create two cards. The first card will show:

Canberra was founded in [...].

…​on the question, with the full sentence on the answer. The other card will have the following on the question:

[...] was founded in 1913.

You can also elide multiple sections on the same card. In the above example, if you change c2 to c1, only one card would be created, with both Canberra and 1913 hidden. If you hold down Alt (Option on a Mac) while creating a cloze, Anki will automatically use the same number instead of incrementing it.

Cloze deletions don't need to fall on word boundaries, so if you select "anberra" rather than "Canberra" in the above example, the question would appear as "C[…​] was founded in 1913", giving you a hint.

You can also give yourself hints that don't match the text. If you replace the original sentence with:

Canberra::city was founded in 1913

…​and then press […​] after selecting "Canberra::city", Anki will treat the text after the two colons as a hint, changing the text into:

{{c1::Canberra::city}} was founded in 1913

When the card comes up for review, it will appear as:

[city] was founded in 1913.

For information on testing your ability to type in a cloze deletion correctly, please see the section on typing answers.

Please note that overlapping clozes are not supported. For example, the following field is invalid:

{{c1::Canberra was {{c2::founded}}}} in 1913

If you need to create clozes from overlapping text, add another Text field to your cloze, add it to the template, and then when creating notes, paste the text into two separate fields, like so:

Text1 field: {{c1::Canberra was founded}} in 1913

Text2 field: {{c2::Canberra}} was founded in 1913

The default cloze note type has a second field called Extra, that is shown on the answer side of each card. It can be used for adding some usage notes or extra information.

The cloze note type is treated specially by Anki, and cannot be created based on a regular note type. If you wish to customize it, please make sure to clone the existing Cloze type instead of another type of note. Things like formatting can be customized, but it is not possible to add extra card templates to the cloze note type.

Inputting Foreign Characters and Accents

All modern computers have built-in support for typing accents and foreign characters, and multiple ways to go about it. The method we recommend is by using a keyboard layout for the language you want to learn.

Languages with a separate script like Japanese, Chinese, Thai, and so on, have their own layouts specific to that language.

European languages that use accents may have their own layout, but can often by typed on a generic "international keyboard" layout. These work by typing the accent, then the character you want accented - e.g. an apostrophe (') then the letter a (a) gives á.

To add the international keyboard on Windows machines, please see http://www.techlanguage.com/tips/us_international.html

To add it on Macs, please see http://www.macworld.com/article/1147039/os-x/accentinput.html

Keyboards for a specific language are added in a similar way, but we can not cover them all here. For more information, please try searching Google for "input Japanese on a mac", "type Chinese on Windows 10", and so on.

If you are learning a right-to-left language, there are lots of other things to consider. Please see this page for more information.

The toolkit, on which Anki is built, has trouble dealing with a few input methods, such as holding down keys to select accented characters on Mac OS X, and typing characters by holding down the Alt key and typing a numeric code on Windows.

Unicode Normalization

Text like á can be represented in multiple ways on a computer, such as using a specific code for that symbol, or by using a standard a and then another code for the accent on top. This causes problems when mixing input from different sources, or using different computers - if your computer handles keyboard input in one form, but the content is stored in a different form, it will not match when searching, even though the end result appears identical.

To ensure content can easily be found in searches, Anki normalizes the text to a standard form. For most users this process is transparent, but if you are studying certain material like archaic Japanese symbols, the normalization process can end up converting them to a more modern equivalent.

If you want character variants preserved, the following in the debug console will turn off normalization:

mw.col.conf["normalize_note_text"] = False

Any content added after that will remain untouched. The trade-off is that you may find it difficult to search for the content if you're switching between operating systems, or pasting content from mixed sources.

Шаблоны карточек

Card templates tell Anki which fields should appear on the front and back of your card, and control which cards will be generated when certain fields have text in them. By adjusting your card templates, you can alter the design and styling of many of your cards at once.

Card templates are covered in some of the intro videos:

The Templates Screen

You can modify card templates by clicking the "Cards..." button inside the editing screen.

For older Anki versions, on the top left is the front template, on the bottom left is the back template, and in between them is the card styling section. For Anki versions 2.1.28+ the front, back, and styling are no longer shown at the same time. You can switch between them with Ctrl+1, Ctrl+2, and Ctrl+3.

In Anki, templates are written in HTML, which is the language that web pages are written in. The styling section is CSS, which is the language used for styling web pages.

On the right is a preview of the front and back of the currently selected card. If you opened the window while adding notes, the preview will be based on the text you had typed into the Add Notes window. If you opened the window while editing a note, the preview will be based on the content of that note. If you opened the window from Tools → Manage Note Types, Anki will display each field’s name in parentheses in place of content.

At the top right of the window is an Options button that gives you options to rename or reorder the cards, as well as the following two options:

  • The 'Deck Override' option allows you to change the deck that cards generated from the current card type will be placed into. By default, cards are placed into the deck you provide in the Add Notes window. If you set a deck here, that card type will be placed into the deck you specified, instead of the deck listed in the Add Notes window. This can be useful if you want to separate cards into different decks (for instance, when studying a language, to put production cards in one deck and recognition cards in another). You can check which deck the cards are currently going to by choosing Deck Override again.

  • The 'Browser Appearance' option allows you to set different (perhaps simplified) templates for display in the Question and Answer columns of the browser; see browser appearance for more information.

Field Replacements

Basic Replacements

The most basic template looks something like this:

{{Front}}

When you place text within curly brackets, Anki looks for a field by that name, and replaces the text with the actual content of the field.

Field names are case sensitive. If you have a field named Front, writing {{front}} will not work properly.

Your templates are not limited to a list of fields. You can also include arbitrary text on your templates. For example, if you’re studying capital cities, and you’ve created a note type with a “Country” field, you might create a front template like this:

What's the capital city of {{Country}}?

The default back template will look something like this:

{{FrontSide}}

<hr id=answer>

{{Back}}

This means “show me the text that’s on the front side, then a divider line, and then the Back field”.

The 'id=answer' part tells Anki where the divider is between the question and the answer. This allows Anki to automatically scroll to the spot where the answer starts when you press 'show answer' on a long card (especially useful on mobile devices with small screens). If you don’t want a horizontal line at the beginning of the answer, you can use another HTML element such as a paragraph or div instead.

Newlines

Card templates are like web pages, which means a special command is required to create a new line. For example, if you wrote the following in the template:

one
two

In the preview, you’d actually see:

one two

To add a new line, you need to add a <br> code to the end of a line, like so:

one<br>
two

The br code stands for "(line) br(eak)".

The same applies for fields. If you want to display two fields, one on each line, you would use

{{Field 1}}<br>
{{Field 2}}

Text to Speech

This feature requires Anki 2.1.20, or AnkiMobile 2.0.56. AnkiDroid does not currently support this method.

To have Anki read the Front field in a US English voice, you can place the following in your card template:

{{tts en_US:Front}}

On Windows, MacOS, and iOS, Anki will use the OS’s built in voices. On Linux, no voices are built in, but voices can be provided by add-ons, such as this one.

To see a list of all available languages/voices, place the following on your card template:

{{tts-voices:}}

If there are multiple voices that support your chosen language, you can specify desired voices in a list, and Anki will choose the first available voice. For example:

{{tts ja_JP voices=Apple_Otoya,Microsoft_Haruka:Field}}

This would use Otoya when on an Apple device, and Haruka when on a Windows PC.

Specifying a different speed is possible in some TTS implementations:

{{tts fr_FR speed=0.8:SomeField}}

Both speed and voices are optional, but the language must be included.

On a Mac, you can customize the available voices:

  • Open the System Preferences screen.

  • Click on Accessibility.

  • Click on Speech.

  • Click on the system voice dropdown, and choose Customize.

Some voices sound better than others, so experiment to choose the one you prefer. Please note that the Siri voice can only be used by Apple apps. Once you’ve installed new voices, you’ll need to restart Anki for the new voices to become available.

On Windows, some voices like Cortana can not be selected, as Microsoft does not make those voices available to other applications.

On a cloze note type, you can make Anki read only the elided sections using the cloze-only filter, like so:

{{tts en_US:cloze-only:Text}}

The cloze-only filter is supported in Anki 2.1.29+ and AnkiMobile 2.0.65+.

Специальные поля

There are some special fields you can include in your templates:

The note's tags: {{Tags}}

The type of note: {{Type}}

The card's deck: {{Deck}}

The card's subdeck: {{Subdeck}}

The type of card ("Forward", etc): {{Card}}

The content of the front template
(only valid in back template): {{FrontSide}}

FrontSide will not automatically play any audio that was on the front side of the card. If you wish to have the same audio play automatically on both the front and back of the card, you’ll need to manually include the audio fields on the back as well.

As with other fields, special field names are case sensitive - you must use {{Tags}} rather than {{tags}} for example.

Hint Fields

It’s possible to add a field to the front or back of a card, but make it hidden until you explicitly show it. We call this a 'hint field'. Before adding a hint, please bear in mind that the easier you make it to answer a question in Anki, the less likely you are to remember that question when you encounter it in real life. Please have a read about the 'minimum information principle' on http://www.supermemo.com/articles/20rules.htm before proceeding.

First, you’ll need to add a field to store the hint in if you have not already. Please see the fields section if you’re not sure how to do this.

Assuming you’ve created a field called MyField, you can tell Anki to include it on the card but hide it by default by adding the following to your template:

{{hint:MyField}}

This will show a link labeled “show hint”; when you click it, the content of the field will be displayed on the card. (If MyField is empty, nothing will be shown.)

If you show the hint on the question and then reveal the answer, the hint will be hidden again. If you want to have the hint always revealed when the answer is shown, you will need to remove {{FrontSide}} from your back template and manually add the fields you wish to appear.

It is not currently possible to use a hint field for audio — the audio will play regardless of whether you’ve clicked on the hint link.

If you want to customize the appearance or behaviour, you’ll need to implement the hint field yourself. We can not provide any support for doing so, but the following code should get you started:

{{#Back}}
<a class=hint href="#"
onclick="this.style.display='none';document.getElementById('hint4753594160').style.display='inline-block';return false;">
Show Back</a><div id="hint4753594160" class=hint style="display: none">{{Back}}</div>
{{/Back}}

You can also use field replacement to create dictionary links. Imagine you’re studying a language and your favourite online dictionary allows you to search for text using a web URL like:

http://example.com/search?q=myword

You could add an automatic link by doing the following in your template:

{{Expression}}

<a href="http://example.com/search?q={{Expression}}">check in dictionary</a>

The template above would allow you to search for each note’s expression by clicking on the link while reviewing. There is a caveat however, so please see the next section.

HTML Stripping

Like templates, fields are stored in HTML. In the dictionary link example above, if the expression contained the word "myword" without any formatting, then the HTML would be the same: "myword". But when you include formatting in your fields, extra HTML is included. If "myword" was bolded for example, the actual HTML would be "<b>myword</b>".

This can present a problem for things like dictionary links. In the above example, the dictionary link would end up being:

<a href="http://example.com/search?q=<b>myword</b>">check in dictionary</a>

The extra characters in the link would likely confuse the dictionary site, and you’re likely not to get any matches.

To solve this, Anki provides the ability to strip formatting from fields when they are replaced. If you prefix a field name with text:, Anki will not include any formatting. So a dictionary link that worked even with formatted text would be:

<a href="http://example.com/search?q={{text:Expression}}">check in dictionary</a>

Right To Left Text

If you’re using a language that reads from right to left, you’ll need to adjust the template like so:

<div dir=rtl>{{FieldThatHasRTLTextInIt}}</div>

Media & LaTeX

Anki does not scan templates for media references, because it is slow to do so. This has implications for including media on the template.

Static Sounds/Images

If you wish to include images or sounds on your cards that are the same for every card (eg, a company logo at the top of each card):

  1. Rename the file so it starts with an underscore, eg "_logo.jpg". The underscore tells Anki that the file is used by the template and it should be exported when sharing the deck.

  2. Add a reference to the media on your front or back template, like:

<img src="_logo.jpg">

Field References

Media references to fields are not supported. They may or may not display during review, and will not work when checking for unused media, importing/exporting, and so on. Examples that won’t work:

<img src="{{Expression}}.jpg">

[sound:{{Word}}]

[latex]{{Field 1}}[/latex]

Instead, you should include the media references in the field. Please see the importing section for more information.

Проверка своего ответа

You can watch a video about this feature on YouTube.

The easiest way to check your answer is to click "Basic" at the top left of the card adding screen, and select "Basic (type in the answer)".

If you have downloaded a shared deck and would like to type in the answer with it, you can modify its card template. If it has a template like:

{{Native Word}}

{{FrontSide}}

<hr id=answer>

{{Foreign Word}}

To type in the foreign word and check if you are correct, you need to edit your front template so that it looks like this:

{{Native Word}}
{{type:Foreign Word}}

Note that we have added type: in front of the field we want to compare. Since FrontSide is on the back of the card, the type answer box will appear on the back as well.

When reviewing, Anki will display a text box where you can type in the answer, and upon hitting Enter or showing the answer, Anki will show you which parts you got right and which parts you got wrong. The text box’s font size will be the size you configured for that field (via the “Fields” button when editing).

This feature does not change how the cards are answered, so it’s still up to you to decide how well you remembered or not.

Only one typing comparison can be used on a card. If you add the above text multiple times, it will not work. It also only supports a single line, so it is not useful for comparing against a field that is comprised on multiple lines.

Anki uses a monospaced font for the answer comparison so that the “provided” and “correct” sections line up. If you wish to override the font for the answer comparison, you can put the following at the bottom of your styling section:

code#typeans { font-family: "myfontname"; }

Which will affect the following HTML for the answer comparison:

<code id=typeans>...</code>

Advanced users can override the default type-answer colors with the css classes 'typeGood', 'typeBad' and 'typeMissed'. AnkiMobile supports 'typeGood' and 'typeBad', but not 'typeMissed'.

If you wish to override the size of the typing box and don’t want to change the font in the Fields dialog, you can override the default inline style using !important, like so:

#typeans { font-size: 50px !important; }

It is also possible to type in the answer for cloze deletion cards. To do this, add {{type:cloze:Text}} to both the front and back template, so the back looks something like this:

{{cloze:Text}}
{{type:cloze:Text}}
{{Extra}}

Note that since the cloze type does not use FrontSide, this must be added to both sides on a cloze note type.

If there are multiple sections elided, you can separate the answers in the text box with a comma.

Type answer boxes will not appear in the "preview" dialog in the browser. When you review or look at the preview in the card types window, they will display.

Card Generation

Reverse Cards

You can watch a video about reversing cards on YouTube.

If you want to create cards that go in both directions (e.g., both “ookii”→“big” and “big”→“ookii”), you have several options. The simplest is to select the “Basic (and reversed card)” built-in note type. This will generate two cards, one in each direction.

If you want to generate reverse cards for only some of your material (perhaps you only want to take the time to study reverses for the most important material, or some of your cards don’t make sense reversed), you can select the “Basic (optional reversed card)” note type. This note type generates a forward-only card when you fill in only the first two fields; if you additionally enter something in the “Add Reverse” field (like a 'y'), Anki will generate a reverse card as well. The contents of this field will never be displayed on a card.

Card Generation & Deletion

Anki will not create cards with empty front sides. Thus if “My Field” was empty, and one card’s front template included only that field, the card would not be created.

If no cards can be created because all of the cards would have empty front sides, then the Add Notes window will warn you and not allow the note to be added until at least one card would be generated.

When you edit a previously added note, Anki will automatically create extra cards if they were previously blank but no longer are. If your edits have made some cards blank when they previously were not, however, Anki will not delete them immediately, as that could lead to accidental data loss. To remove the empty cards, go to Tools → Empty Cards in the main window. You will be shown a list of empty cards and be given the option to delete them.

Because of the way that card generation works, it is not possible to manually delete individual cards, as they would just end up being recreated the next time the note was edited. Instead, you should make the relevant conditional replacement fields empty and then use the Empty Cards option.

Anki does not consider special fields or non-field text for the purposes of card generation. Thus if your front template looked like the following, no card would be generated if Country was empty:

Where is {{Country}} on the map?

Selective Card Generation

Sometimes you may want to generate extra cards for only some of your material, such as testing your ability to recall the most important words of a set. You can accomplish this by adding an extra field to your note, and adding some text into it (such as "1") on the notes you want the extra card. Then in the card template, you can make the card’s creation depend on that field being non-empty. For more information on this, please see the conditional replacement section below.

Conditional Replacement

It is possible to include certain text, fields, or HTML on your cards only if a field is empty or not empty. An example:

This text is always shown.

{{#FieldName}}
    This text is only shown if FieldName has text in it
{{/FieldName}}

{{^FieldName}}
    This text is only shown if FieldName is empty
{{/FieldName}}

A real life example is only showing a label if the field is not empty:

{{#Tags}}
    Tags: {{Tags}}
{{/Tags}}

Or say you want to display a specific field in blue on the front of your card if there are extra notes on the back (perhaps the fact that there are notes serves as a reminder that you should spend more time thinking about the answer). You can style the field as follows:

{{#Notes}}
    <span style="color:blue;">
{{/Notes}}

{{FieldToFormat}}

{{#Notes}}
    </span>
{{/Notes}}

You can also use conditional replacement to control which cards are generated. This works since Anki will not generate cards which would have a blank front side. For example, consider a card with two fields on the front:

{{Expression}}
{{Notes}}

Normally a card would be generated if either the expression or notes field had text in it. If you only wanted a card generated if expression was not empty, then you could change the template to this:

{{#Expression}}
    {{Expression}}
    {{Notes}}
{{/Expression}}

And if you wanted to require both fields, you could use two conditional replacements:

{{#Expression}}
    {{#Notes}}
        {{Expression}}
        {{Notes}}
    {{/Notes}}
{{/Expression}}

Keep in mind that this only works when you place the conditional replacement code on the front of the card; if you do this on the back, you will simply end up with cards with a blank back side. Similarly, since this works by checking if the front field would be empty, it is important to make sure you wrap the 'entire' front side in the conditional replacement; for instance, the following would not work as expected:

{{#Expression}}
    {{Expression}}
{{/Expression}}
{{Notes}}

Blank Back Sides

Card generation only looks at the front side of the card. For example, if you have a front template:

{{Field 1}}

and a back template:

{{Field 2}}

Then a card will be generated if Field 1 is non-empty. If Field 2 is empty, the card will still be generated, and you will get a blank back side.

If you wish to avoid a blank back side, you will need to place a required field on the front template as a conditional, like so:

{{#Field 2}}
    {{Field 1}}
{{/Field 2}}

This will ensure the card is generated only if both Field 2 and Field 1 are non-empty.

Limitations in Older Anki Versions

The following limitations do not apply to Anki 2.1.28+ and AnkiMobile 2.0.64+.

Older Anki versions cannot use negated conditionals for card generation. For example, on Anki 2.1.28, the following would add a card if a field called AddIfEmpty is empty, and Front is non-empty:

{{^AddIfEmpty}}
    {{Front}}
{{/AddIfEmpty}}

On earlier Anki versions, the negated conditional is ignored, and card generation will depend only on Front being non-empty.

Mixing AND and OR conditions can also cause problems on older versions. For example, the following ("add the card if A OR B OR C is non-empty") is fine:

{{A}}
{{B}}
{{C}}

And the following ("add the card if A AND B AND C are non-empty") is fine:

{{#A}}
    {{#B}}
        {{#C}}
            {{A}}
        {{/C}}
    {{/B}}
{{/A}}

But the following ("add the card if A OR (B AND C) are non-empty") will not work properly:

{{A}}
{{#B}}
    {{#C}}
        {{B}}
    {{/C}}
{{/B}}

Adding Empty Notes

When you add a new note in Anki 2.1.28+ and AnkiMobile 2.0.64+, if the card templates and note fields combine to produce no cards, a blank card will be created using the first template. This allows you to add material even if it's incomplete, and modify it or the template later to make it valid. If you don't wish to keep an empty note, you can remove it with the Empty Cards function.

On older Anki versions, Anki refuses to add or import a note if no cards would be generated.

Cloze Templates

Please see the cloze deletion section for background info.

The cloze note type functions differently from regular note types. Instead of a customizable number of card types, it has a single type which is shared by all cloze deletions on a note.

As mentioned in the card generation section above, generation of regular cards depends on one or more fields on the question being non-empty. Cloze deletion note types are generated differently:

  • Anki looks on the front template for one or more cloze replacements, like {{cloze:FieldName}}.

  • It then looks in the FieldName field for all cloze references, like {{c1::text}}.

  • For each separate number, a card will be generated.

Because card generation functions differently for cloze deletion cards, {{cloze:…​}} tags can not be used with a regular note type - they will only function properly when used with a cloze note type.

Conditional generation provides a special field so you can check which card you are rendering. If you wanted to display the "hint1" field on the first cloze, and "hint2" field on the second cloze for example, you could use the following template:

{{cloze:Text}}

{{#c1}}
    {{Hint1}}
{{/c1}}

{{#c2}}
    {{Hint2}}
{{/c2}}

Styling & HTML

Card Styling

You can watch a video about styling cards on YouTube. The video shows Anki 2.0’s interface, but the concepts are largely the same.

In between the front and back template in the Cards screen is the card styling area. In that section, you can change the background color of the card, the default font, the text alignment, and so on.

The standard options available to you are:

font-family
The name of the font to use on the card. If your font has spaces in it like "MS Unicode", then you need to surround the font name in double quotes as in this sentence. It is also possible to use multiple fonts on one card; for information on that, please see below.

font-size
The size of the font in pixels. When changing it, make sure you leave px at the end.

text-align
Whether the text should be aligned in the center, left, or right.

color
The color of the text. Simple color names like 'blue', 'lightyellow', and so on will work, or you can use HTML color codes to select arbitrary colors. Please see this webpage for more information.

background-color
The color of the card background.

Any CSS can be placed in the styling section – advanced users may wish to do things like add a background image or gradient, for example. If you’re wondering how to get some particular formatting, please search the web for information about how to do it in CSS, as there is a great deal of documentation available.

The styling is shared between all cards, which means that when you make an adjustment it will affect all cards for that note type. It is also possible to specify card-specific styling, however. The following example will use a yellow background on all cards except the first one:

.card {
  background-color: yellow;
}
.card1 {
  background-color: blue;
}

Image Resizing

Anki shrinks images to fit the screen by default. You can change this by adding the following to the bottom of your styling section (outside of the default .card { ... }):

img {
  max-width: none;
  max-height: none;
}

AnkiDroid sometimes has trouble scaling images to fit the screen. Setting maximum image dimensions using css should fix this, but seems to be ignored as of AnkiDroid 2.9. A fix is to append !important to each style directive, for example:

img {
  max-width: 300px !important;
  max-height: 300px !important;
}

If you try to change the style for images and find that the star that appears on marked cards is affected (for instance, it becomes way too large), you can target it with the following:

img#star {
  ...;
}

You can explore the styling of cards interactively by using Chrome:

https://addon-docs.ankiweb.net/porting2.0.html#webview-changes

Field Styling

The default styling applies to the whole card. You can also make certain fields or part of the card use a different font, color, and so on. This is particularly important when studying foreign languages, as Anki will sometimes be unable to correctly display characters unless an appropriate font has been chosen.

Say you have an “Expression” field, and you want to give it the OSX Thai font “Ayuthaya”. Imagine your template already reads:

What is {{Expression}}?

{{Notes}}

What we need to do is wrap the text we want to style in some HTML. We will put the following in front of the text:

<div class=mystyle1>

And the following behind it:

</div>

By wrapping the text like the above, we tell Anki to style the wrapped text with a custom style called “mystyle1”, which we will create later.

Thus if we wanted the entire “What is …​?” expression to use the Thai font, we would use:

<div class=mystyle1>What is {{Expression}}?</div>

{{Notes}}

And if we wanted only the expression field itself to use the Thai font, we’d use:

What is <div class=mystyle1>{{Expression}}</div>?

{{Notes}}

After we’ve edited the template, we now need to move to the Styling section between the templates. Before editing it, it should look something like:

.card {
  font-family: arial;
  font-size: 20px;
  text-align: center;
  color: black;
  background-color: white;
}

Add your new style to the bottom, so it looks like:

.card {
  font-family: arial;
  font-size: 20px;
  text-align: center;
  color: black;
  background-color: white;
}

.mystyle1 {
  font-family: ayuthaya;
}

You can include any styling you want in the style. If you wanted to increase the font size too, you’d change the mystyle1 section to look like:

.mystyle1 {
  font-family: ayuthaya;
  font-size: 30px;
}

It’s also possible to bundle custom fonts with your deck, so you don’t need to install them on your computer or mobile device. Please see the installing fonts section for more info.

Audio Replay Buttons

When audio or text to speech is included on your cards, Anki will show buttons you can click on to replay the audio.

If you prefer not to see the buttons, you can hide them in the preferences screen.

You can customize their appearance in your card styling, for example, to make them smaller and colored, you could use the following:

.replay-button svg {
  width: 20px;
  height: 20px;
}
.replay-button svg circle {
  fill: blue;
}
.replay-button svg path {
  stroke: white;
  fill: green;
}

Other HTML

Your templates can contain arbitrary HTML, which means that all the layout possibilities used on internet web pages can also be used on your cards. Things like tables, lists, images, links to external pages and so on are all supported. With tables for example, you could change the layout so that the front and back of a card appear on the left and right instead of the top and bottom.

Covering all of HTML’s features is outside the scope of this manual, but there are plenty of good introductory guides to HTML available on the web if you’d like to learn more.

Browser Appearance

If your card templates are complex, it may be difficult to read the question and answer columns (called "Front" and "Back") in the card list. The "browser appearance" option allows you to define a custom template to be used only in the browser, so you can include only the important fields and change the order if you desire. The syntax is the same as in standard card templates.

Platform-Specific CSS

Anki defines some special CSS classes that allow you to define different styling for different platforms. The example below shows how to vary the font depending on where you’re reviewing:

.win .jp {
  font-family: "MS Mincho";
}
.mac .jp {
  font-family: "Hiragino Mincho Pro";
}
.linux .jp {
  font-family: "Kochi Mincho";
}
.mobile .jp {
  font-family: "Hiragino Mincho ProN";
}

And in the template:

<div class=jp>{{Field}}</div>

For different iOS devices, you can use '.iphone' and '.ipad'.

You can also use properties like .gecko, .opera, and .ie to select particular browsers when using AnkiWeb. Please see http://rafael.adm.br/css_browser_selector/ for a full list of options.

Installing Fonts

If you’re using Anki on a work or school computer where you don’t have permission to install new fonts, or you’re using Anki on a mobile device, it’s possible to add fonts directly to Anki.

To add a font to Anki, it must be in the TrueType format. TrueType fonts have a filename ending in .ttf, such as "Arial.ttf". Once you’ve located a TrueType font, we’ll need to add it to the media folder:

  1. Rename the file, adding an underscore at the start, so it becomes like "_arial.ttf". Adding an underscore will tell Anki that this file will be used on a template, and should not be deleted when checking for unused media.

  2. In your computer’s file browser, go to your Anki Folder, and then a folder called "User 1" (or your profile name if you’ve renamed/added profiles).

  3. Inside the folder, you should see a folder called collection.media. Drag the renamed file to that folder.

After that, we need to update the template:

  1. Click Add at the top of the main screen, and then select the note type you want to change with the top left button.

  2. Click Cards.

  3. In the styling section, add the following text to the bottom (after the last "}" character), replacing "_arial.ttf" with the name of the file you copied into your media folder:

@font-face {
  font-family: myfont;
  src: url("_arial.ttf");
}

Only change the "arial" part, not the "myfont" part.

After that, you can either change the font for the entire card, or for individual fields. To change the font for the entire card, simply locate the font-family: line in the .card section and change the font to "myfont". To change the font for only certain fields, please see the Field Styling instructions above.

Please make sure the filenames match exactly. If the file is called arial.TTF and you write arial.ttf in your card templates, it will not work.

Night Mode

You can customize the way templates appear when night mode is enabled in the preferences screen.

If you wanted a lighter grey background, you could use something like:

.card.nightMode {
  background-color: #555;
}

If you have a 'myclass' style, the following would show the text in yellow when night mode is enabled:

.nightMode .myclass {
  color: yellow;
}

Fading and Scrolling

Anki will automatically scroll to the answer by default. It looks for a HTML element with id=answer, and scrolls to that. You can place the id on a different element to adjust the scrolling position, or remove the id=answer to turn off scrolling.

The question side of a card fades in by default. If you wish to adjust this delay, you can place the following at the top of your front card template:

    <script>qFade=100; if (typeof anki !== 'undefined') anki.qFade=qFade;</script>

100 (milliseconds) is the default; set to 0 to disable fading.

Javascript

As Anki cards are treated like webpages, it is possible to embed some Javascript on your cards via the card template.

Because Javascript is an advanced feature and so many things can go wrong, Javascript functionality is provided without any support or warranty. We can not provide any assistance with writing Javascript, and can not guarantee any code you have written will continue to work without modification in future Anki updates. If you are not comfortable addressing any issues you encounter on your own, then please avoid using Javascript.

Each Anki client may implement card display differently, so you will need to test the behaviour across platforms. A number of clients are implemented by keeping a long running webpage and dynamically updating parts of it as cards are reviewed, so your Javascript will need to update sections of the document using things like document.getElementById() rather than doing things like document.write().

Functions like window.alert are also not available. Anki will write javascript errors to the terminal, so if you’re running on a Mac or Windows computer, you’ll need to manually catch the errors and write them to the document to see them. There is no debugger available, so to figure out problems you’ll need to break down your code until you discover which parts are causing problems.

Настройки

The preferences are available from the Tools menu on Windows/Linux, or the Anki menu on a Mac.

Basic

Video driver
Anki's libraries need a video driver to draw content on the screen. Due to different hardware and software configurations, the driver that works best on your machine may vary. ANGLE and OpenGL will perform better than the software option, but they may not function correctly on some systems. On Macs, you will almost always want to use the OpenGL option.

Show play buttons
Whether a clickable (re)play button will be shown in the review screen for cards with audio.

Interrupt current audio
Whether a currently playing audio file should be stopped when answering a card.

Paste clipboard images as PNG
By default Anki pastes images on the clipboard as JPG files, to save disk space. You can use the option to paste as PNG images instead. PNG images support transparent backgrounds and are lossless, but they usually result in much larger file sizes.

Paste without Shift strips formatting
By default, formatting like bold and colors are kept when pasting, unless the Shift key is held down. This option reverses the behaviour.

Night mode
Night mode will cause Anki to show cards as white text on a black background. Some card templates may need to be modified to work properly with this option enabled - please see night mode styling for more information.

When adding, default to current deck
Controls how note types and decks interact. The default of "When adding, default to current deck" means that Anki saves the last-used note type for each deck and selects it again then next time you choose the deck (and, in addition, will start with the current deck selected when choosing Add from anywhere). The other option, "Change deck depending on note type," saves the last-used deck for each note type (and opens the add window to the last-used note type when you choose Add). This may be more convenient if you always use a single note type for each deck.

Scheduling

Show next review time above answer buttons
Useful to know how far in the future your cards are being pushed.

Show remaining card count during review
Disable this option to hide the card count at the bottom of the screen.

Show learning cards with larger steps before
Only shown when the 2.1 scheduler is enabled. Normally learning cards with a 1+ day delay are shown after normal reviews. If checked, Anki will show them before normal reviews instead.

Legacy timezone handling
Please see here: https://faqs.ankiweb.net/timezone-handling-changes.html

V3 Scheduler
The Anki V3 scheduler is documented here:
https://faqs.ankiweb.net/the-2021-scheduler.html

Mix new cards and reviews: Only shown when the v1/v2 schedulers are enabled. This drop-down box controls when new cards are shown: either mixed with, before, or after all reviews.

Next day starts at
Controls when Anki should start showing the next day’s cards. The default setting of 4AM ensures that if you’re studying around midnight, you won’t have two days' worth of cards shown to you in one session. If you stay up very late or wake up very early, you may want to adjust this to a time you’re usually sleeping. Note that the start of the next day is relative to your current timezone.

Learn ahead limit
Tells Anki how to behave when there is nothing left to study in the current deck but cards in learning. The default setting of 20 minutes tells Anki that cards should be shown early if they have a delay of less than 20 minutes and there’s nothing else to do. If you set this to 0, Anki will always wait the full delay, showing the congratulations screen until the remaining cards are ready to be reviewed.

Timebox time limit
Timeboxing is a technique to help you focus by dividing a longer activity (such as a 30 minute study session) into smaller blocks. If you set the timebox time limit to a non-zero number of minutes, Anki will periodically show you how many cards you’ve managed to study during the prescribed time limit.

Network

The network tab contains options related to syncing with AnkiWeb.

  • When logged in, the deauthorize button will log you out.
  • When the 'force changes' option is enabled, the next sync will ask you whether you wish to upload or download. This is useful if you have made some changes accidentally, and wish to overwrite them with an older version that is on AnkiWeb.

Настройки колоды

Deck options primarily control the way Anki schedules cards. It is recommended that you spend a few weeks with the defaults to get a feel for how Anki works before you start adjusting options. Please make sure you understand the options before changing them, as mistakes could reduce Anki's effectiveness.

Deck options are accessed by:

  • Clicking the gear icon on the Decks screen.
  • Selecting a deck on the Decks screen, and then clicking Options at the bottom of the screen.
  • Clicking on More > Options while in review mode.
  • Pressing o while in review mode.

This page describes the options shown in Anki 2.1.45+, when you have the v2 or v3 scheduler enabled. On older versions, some options will not be available, or will appear in a different section.

Presets

Anki allows you to share options between different decks, to make updating options in many decks at once easy. To do this, options are grouped into presets. By default, all newly created decks use the same preset.

If you’d like to alter the settings on one deck but not other decks, click the arrow icon in the top right of the Deck Options window. The options are:

  • Save: Saves all modifications you've made since opening the deck options screen.
  • Add: Add a new preset, with the default options.
  • Clone: Clone your current present, which is useful if you just want to modify certain options, keeping the rest as they are.
  • Rename Changes the name of the current preset.
  • Delete Deletes the current preset. This will require that the next sync is a one-way sync.
  • Save to all subdecks. Like Save, but also assigns the selected preset to all subdecks of the currently selected deck.

Deck Options are not retroactive. For example, if you change an option that controls the delay after failing a card, cards that you failed prior to changing the option will have the old delay, not the new one.

Subdecks

If your deck has subdecks, each deck can optionally be assigned a different preset. When Anki shows a card, it will check which subdeck the card is in, and use the options for that deck. There are some exceptions:

  • The new cards/day and reviews/day limits behave differently depending on the scheduler version you have selected.
  • The display order options in the v3 scheduler are taken from the deck you select to study, not the deck of the current card.

For example, let's say you have this collection:

  • Deck A (Preset 1)
    • Deck A::Subdeck B (Preset 2)
      • Card B1
      • Card B2

Preset 1 and 2 are identical, with two exceptions:

  • Preset 1:
    • New Cards - Learning steps: 1m 10m
    • Display Order - New/review priority: Mix with reviews
  • Preset 2:
    • New Cards - Learning steps: 20m 2h
    • Display Order - New/review priority: Show after reviews

If you choose to study Deck A:

  • Learning steps for all new cards will be 20m 2h (preset 2 applies)
  • All new cards will be mixed with reviews (preset 1 applies)

If you choose to study Subdeck B:

  • Learning steps for all new cards will be 20m 2h (preset 2 applies)
  • All new cards will be shown after reviews (preset 2 applies)

Daily Limits

New Cards/Day

Controls how many new cards are introduced each day you open the program. If you study fewer than the limit, or miss a day, the next day the counts will be back to your limit - they do not accumulate.

In the v3 scheduler, Anki uses the limits of the deck you select as an upper limit on the number of cards. This means if "French" has a limit of 20 cards and "French::Lesson 1" and "French::Lesson 2" both have limits of 15 cards, when you click on "French", you’ll get at most 15 cards from either child deck, and only 20 cards in total.

In the v1 or v2 scheduler, each parent applies its limits to its children. If you have decks in a grandparent-parent-child arrangement, both the grandparent and parent limits will alter how many cards are shown from the child, even if you click directly on the child.

Studying new cards will temporarily increase the number of reviews you need to do a day, as freshly learnt material needs to be repeated a number of times before the delay between repetitions can increase appreciably. If you are consistently learning 20 new cards a day, you can expect your daily reviews to be roughly about 200 cards/day. You can decrease the reviews required by introducing fewer new cards each day, or by turning off new card display until your review burden decreases. More than one Anki user has excitedly studied hundreds of new cards over their first few days of using the program, and then become overwhelmed by the reviews required.

If using the v3 scheduler, please keep in mind that the new count is capped by the review count. If your review limit is set to 200, and you have 190 reviews waiting, a maximum of 10 new cards will be introduced. If your review limit has been reached, no new cards will be shown. If you have a backlog of reviews and still want to introduce new cards, you can do so by suspending the reviews, or increasing your review limit. That said, it is recommended you hold off on new cards until you catch up instead, as introducing more new cards when you're behind will only make the backlog worse.

Maximum Reviews/Day

Allows you to set an upper limit on the number of reviews to show each day. When this limit is reached, Anki will not show any more review cards for the day, even if there are some waiting. If you study consistently, this setting can help to smooth out occasional peaks in due card counts, and can save you from a heart attack when returning to Anki after a week off. When reviews have been hidden due to this option, a message will appear in the congratulations screen, suggesting you consider increasing the limit if you have time.

In the v3 scheduler and v1 schedulers, the counts are affected by parents/selected decks in the same way as new cards.

In the v2 scheduler, the limit is taken solely from the deck you select - any limits on its parents or child decks are ignored.

The v3 scheduler includes learning cards with a 1+ day delay in the review count, so those learning cards will be subject to the daily limit.

New Cards

The settings in this section only affect new cards and cards in initial learning mode. Once a card has graduated (i.e. there are no more learning steps for this card), it becomes a review card, and the settings in this section are no longer applicable.

Learning Steps

Controls the number of learning repetitions, and the delay between them. One or more delays, separated by spaces must be entered. Each time you press Good during review, the card moves to the next step.

For example, let's say that your learning steps are 1m 10m 1d.

  • When you press Again, the card goes back to first step, and will be shown again approximately 1 minute later.
  • When you press Good on a new card, or a card answered Again, it will move to the next step, and be shown again in approximately 10 minutes.
  • When you press Good on a card after the 10 minute step, it will be delayed until the next day.
  • When you press Good on the card the next day, it will leave learning (i.e. it will graduate), and become a review card. It will be shown again after the delay configured by the graduating interval.

If there’s nothing else to study, Anki will show cards up to 20 minutes early by default. The amount of time to look ahead is configurable in the preferences.

Anki treats small steps and steps that cross a day boundary differently. With small steps, the cards are shown as soon as the delay has passed, in preference to other waiting cards like reviews. This is done so that you can answer the card as closely to your requested delay as possible. In contrast, cards that cross a day boundary are scheduled on a per-day basis like reviews are. By default they are shown after normal reviews; this can be customized in the display order section for the v3 scheduler, and in the preferences screen for older schedulers.

Please see the learning section for more info on how steps work. Also, check this forum's post for more examples.

Graduating Interval

The delay in days between answering "Good" on a learning card with no steps left, and seeing the card again as a review card. Please see the example in the previous section.

Easy Interval

The delay between answering Easy on a learning card, and seeing it in review mode for the first time.

The Easy button immediately turns a learning card into a review card, and assigns it the delay you have configured. It should always be at least as long as the graduating interval, and typically a few days longer.

Insertion Order

Controls whether Anki should add new cards into the deck randomly, or in order. When you change this option, Anki will re-sort the decks using the current Option Group. Cards with a lower due number will be shown first when studying, by default. Changing this option will automatically update the existing position of new cards.

One caveat with random order mode: if you review many of your new cards, and then add more new cards, the newly added material is statistically more likely to appear than the new cards that were already in the deck. For example, if you have 100 cards in random order, then review the first 50, newly added cards are still given position 1-100, but as you have already reviewed the first 50, the newly added cards are more likely to appear earlier. To correct this, you can change the order to Ordered mode and back again to force a re-sort.

When you select random order, Anki will randomize your notes, keeping the cards of a given note close together. The cards of a given note are shown in the order, in which their card types appear, so that siblings are introduced consistently — otherwise you could end up in a state where some notes had all their cards introduced and other notes had only one or two. Please see the "bury related" and "display order" sections below for more info.

Lapses

When you forget a review card, it is said to have 'lapsed', and the card must be relearnt. The default behaviour for lapsed reviews is to reset the interval to 1 (i.e. make it due tomorrow), and put it in the learning queue for a refresher in 10 minutes. This behaviour can be customized with the options listed below.

Relearning Steps

The same as 'learning steps', but for forgotten reviews. When you fail a card (press Again), the card enters the relearning phase, and before it becomes a review card again, you will have to pass all the relearning steps — or, alternatively, press Easy on the card.

If you leave the steps blank, the card will skip relearning, and will be assigned a new review delay.

Minimum Interval

Specifies a minimum number of days a card should wait after it finishes relearning. The default is one day, meaning once relearning is finished, it will be shown again the next day.

Leeches

Control the way Anki handles leeches. Please see the leeches section for more information.

Timer

Anki monitors how long it takes you to answer each question, so that it can show you how long was spent studying each day. The time taken does not influence scheduling. The default limit is 60 seconds. If you take longer than that, Anki assumes you have walked away from your computer or have been distracted, and limits the recorded time to 60 seconds, so that you don’t end up with inaccurate statistics. If you consistently take longer than 60 seconds to answer a card, you may want to either consider raising this limit, or ideally, making your cards simpler.

Burying

Please see this section for more information.

Порядок отображения

The options in this section are taken from the deck you select to study, not the deck of the currently displayed card.

This section is only available when you have the v3 scheduler enabled.

Some further information about display order is available in the studying section.

New Card Gather Priority

Controls how Anki gathers cards from each subdeck.

With the default Deck ordering, cards are gathered from each subdeck in order, stopping when the limit of the selected deck has been exceeded. This is faster, and allows you to priorize subdecks that are closer to the top. Decks / subdecks are always ordered alphabetically, so you can give them a numeric prefix like 001 to control the order they are shown. You can also use _ and ~ as a prefix to place items at the top or bottom.

Although position order depends initially on the 'Insertion Order' setting above, you can manually reposition cards in different ways.

New Card Sort Order

Controls how cards are sorted after they have been gathered. By default, Anki sorts by template first, to avoid multiple cards of the same note from being shown in succession. This results in cards appearing in the order they have been added, with the first card template (eg front->back) appearing before later card templates (eg back->front).

New/Review Priority

Whether new cards should be mixed in with reviews, or shown before or after them.

Interday Learning/Review Priority

Whether learning cards with a 1+ day delay should be mixed in with reviews, or shown before or after them. Because learning cards tend to be harder than reviews, some users prefer to see them at the end (getting the easy stuff done first), or at the start (allowing more time to review forgotten ones).

Review Sort Order

The default order prioritizes cards that have been waiting longer, which works well when you are up to date, or when you only have a small backlog. If you have taken an extended break or have fallen behind in your reviews, you may want to consider changing the sort order temporarily. Sorting by ascending intervals will ensure cards with shorter delays are shown first, and by descending intervals will allow you to work through the easier material first.

Choosing the Deck, then due date option will ensure reviews are shown for each subdeck in turn. This is generally not recommended, as having material appear consistently in the same order makes it easier to guess the answer based on context, and may lead to weaker memories.

Audio

By default, Anki automatically plays audio on the front and back of cards. If you uncheck 'automatically play audio', Anki will not play audio until you press the replay audio key, r or F5.

Always include question side when replaying audio controls whether audio from the question side should be played when replaying the audio while an answer is shown. Please note that it does not control what happens when you show the answer; for that please see this section.

Advanced

Maximum Interval

Allows you to place an upper limit on the time Anki will wait to reshow a card. The default is 100 years; you can decrease this to a smaller number if you’re willing to trade extra study time for higher retention.

Starting Ease

Controls the easiness that cards start out with. It is set when a card graduates from learning for the first time. It defaults to 250%, meaning that once you have finished learning a card, answering Good on subsequent reviews will increase the delay by approximately 2.5 (e.g. if the last delay was 10 days, the next delay would be around 25 days). Based upon how you rate the card in subsequent reviews, the easiness may increase or decrease from its starting value.

Easy Bonus

An extra multiplier applied to the interval when a review card is answered Easy. With the default value of 130%, Easy will give an interval that is 1.3 times the Good interval.

Interval Modifier

An extra multiplier that is applied to all reviews. At its default of 100% it does nothing. If you set it to 80%, though, for example, intervals will be generated at 80% of their normal size (so a 10 day interval would become 8 days). You can thus use the multiplier to make Anki present cards more or less frequently than it would otherwise, trading study time for retention or vice versa.

For moderately difficult material, the average user should find they remember approximately 90% of mature cards that come up for review. You can find out your own performance by opening the graphs/statistics for a deck and looking at the Answer Buttons graph - mature retention is the correct% on the right side of the graph. If you haven’t been studying long, you may not have any mature cards yet. As performance with new cards and younger cards can vary considerably, it’s a good idea to wait until you have a reasonable amount of mature reviews before you start drawing conclusions about your retention rate.

On the SuperMemo website, they suggest that you can find an appropriate multiplier for a desired retention rate. Their formula boils down to:

log(desired retention%) / log(current retention%)

Imagine we have a current retention rate of 85% and we want to increase it to 90%. We’d calculate the modifier as:

log(90%) / log(85%) = 0.65

You can use Google to calculate it for you.

If you plug the resulting 65% into the interval modifier, you should find over time that your retention moves closer to your desired retention.

One important thing to note however is that the trade-off between time spent studying and retention is not linear: we can see here that to increase our retention by 5 percentage points, we would have to study 35% more frequently. If the material you are learning is very important then it may be worth the extra effort – that is, of course, something you will need to decide for yourself. If you are simply worried that you are forgetting too much, then you may find investing more time at the initial learning stage and/or using mnemonics will give you more gain for less effort.

One final thing to note is that Anki forces a new interval to be at least 1 day longer than it was previously, so that you do not get stuck reviewing with the same interval forever. If your goal is to repeat a card once a day for multiple days, you can do that by setting more learning mode steps, instead of by adjusting this modifier.

Hard Interval

The multiplier used when you use the Hard button. The percentage is relative to the previous interval: e.g. with a default of 120%, a card with a 10-day interval will be given 12 days.

New Interval

The multiplier used when you use the Again button on a review card. The default 0% means that a review card's delay is reset to zero when you forget it (which then becomes 1 day after the minimum interval is applied).

If changed from the default, it is possible for forgotten cards to preserve part of their previous delay. For example, if a card had a 100 day interval, and you set the New Interval to 20%, the new interval would be 20 days.

While preserving part of the interval may seem to make sense, SuperMemo has observed that preserving part of the delay can actually be counter-productive. For this reason, we recommend you leave it on the default setting.

Custom Scheduling

Please see this page.

Syncing with AnkiWeb

AnkiWeb is a service that allows you to keep your collection synchronized across multiple devices, and to study online. Please sign up for a free account before following the steps below.

Intro Videos

For a quick introduction to syncing, please check out the syncing intro videos.

Setup

To start syncing your collection across devices, click the sync button (the top right one on the main screen), or press 'y' on your keyboard. You’ll be prompted for your AnkiWeb ID and password, which you created in the signup process.

When you synchronize your collection for the first time, Anki will ask you if you want to upload or download. If you have cards on your computer and your AnkiWeb account is empty, choose "upload" to send your data to AnkiWeb. If you have cards on AnkiWeb from another device, and no cards on your computer, choose "download" to replace the empty local collection with the cards that are on AnkiWeb. If you have different cards on both devices, more work is required to avoid losing data.

Once the initial one way sync is completed, Anki will be able to merge changes from multiple locations with a few exceptions.

If you have multiple people using Anki on one machine and have created a profile for each user, each user will need to create their own AnkiWeb account to sync with. If you attempt to synchronize multiple profiles with a single AnkiWeb account, you will lose data.

Automatic Syncing

Once syncing is enabled, Anki will automatically sync each time your collection is closed or opened. If you would prefer to synchronize manually, you can disable automatic syncing in Anki’s preferences.

Button Color

The sync button will change to blue when a normal sync is required, and red when a full sync is required.

Media

Related video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=phP9GGG-PxY

Anki will synchronize any sounds and images used by your notes. It will notice when media has been added or removed from your media folder, but will not notice if you have edited some existing files without adding or removing any. To get your edits noticed, you need to add or remove a file as well.

If you’re running Anki off a USB flash drive, you should use an NTFS file system, as Anki may not be able to detect media changes on a FAT32 filesystem.

Conflicts

Related video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UEAcpfMQnjo

Under normal circumstances, reviews and note edits can be merged, so if you review or edit on two different devices before syncing, Anki will preserve your changes from both locations. If the same card has been reviewed in two different locations, both reviews will be marked in the revision history, and the card will be kept in the state it was when it was most recently answered.

There are certain changes that Anki is unable to merge. These mainly relate to the format of notes: things like adding a new field, or removing a card template. When you perform an operation that can’t be merged, Anki will warn you, and give you the option of aborting the operation. If you choose to continue, you’ll be asked to choose whether to keep the local copy or the copy on AnkiWeb when your collection is next synchronized.

If certain problems are detected while syncing, it will also force a one way sync. If you find this consistently happens, please post on our support site.

When a one way sync is required, you need to choose whether you wish to keep the collection on your local device, or the collection on AnkiWeb. If changes have been made on both ends, only changes on one end can be preserved.

If you choose Upload, the content on your local device will be sent to AnkiWeb. You then need to sync your other devices, and choose "Download" to have them grab a copy of that content.

If you choose Download, it will replace any local changes you’ve made with the data that is on AnkiWeb.

Once all devices are in sync, future syncs will return to the normal behaviour of merging changes from both ends.

If you wish to force a full upload or download (for example, because you accidentally deleted a deck on one side and want to restore the deck rather than having its deletion synchronized), you can check the "On next sync, force changes in one direction" box in Tools>Preferences>Network, then sync as usual. (You’ll be given the option to choose which side you want to use.)

Forcing a one way sync only affects card syncing - media is synced as normal. If you have files that you want to remove from AnkiWeb, please ensure your client is fully in sync first. After syncing is up to date, any files you remove (eg via the Check Media function) will be removed from AnkiWeb on the following sync.

Merging Conflicts

Because the first sync can only sync changes in one direction, if you have added different content to different devices or profiles before setting syncing up, content on one device will be lost if you overwrite it with the content from the other device. With some work, it is possible to manually merge data into a single collection.

Start by taking a backup on each device/profile, in case something goes wrong. With the computer version you can use File>Export to export "all decks" with scheduling information and media files included, and save the file somewhere safe. In AnkiMobile, the Add/Export button on the decks list screen will let you export all decks with media.

Next, if one of your devices is a mobile device, synchronize it first. If there’s a conflict, choose "upload" to overwrite any existing data on AnkiWeb with the data from your mobile device. If both devices/profiles are on your computer, synchronize the device/profile with the most number of decks first.

Now return to the other device/profile. If automatic syncing is enabled, a message may pop up asking if you want to upload or download. Click the cancel button - we don’t want to sync yet.

Once you’re looking at the deck list, click the cog icon next to the first deck, and choose "export". Export the content with scheduling information and media included, and save the .apkg file somewhere. Now you’ll need to repeat this for each top-level deck.

Once all top-level decks have been exported, click the sync button at the top right, and choose "download", which will overwrite the local content with the content you synced from your other device.

You can now use File>Import to import the .apkg files you exported earlier, which will merge the exported content with the existing content, so everything will be in one place.

Firewalls

Anki needs to be able to make outbound HTTPS connections to sync. At a minimum it must be able to connect to ankiweb.net, sync.ankiweb.net and syncN.ankiweb.net, where N is number between 2 and 6. These domains may change over time, and the IP addresses they point to may also change, so we recommend you allow wildcard access to *.ankiweb.net to reduce the chance of the firewall rules needing to be updated in the future.

If you have a firewall on your machine, you should add an exception for Anki. If you are on a work or school network, please contact your network administrator for assistance - it is not something we can help you with.

Proxies

If you need a proxy to access the internet, Anki should automatically pick up your system proxy settings if you’re on Windows or OS X, and will honour the HTTP_PROXY environment variable if you’re on another platform.

Anki will only be able to pick up your system settings if a proxy is manually configured, and does not require a password. If your system uses automatic proxy setup, or uses a proxy that requires a username and password, you will need to manually tell Anki the proxy configuration.

To tell Anki your proxy settings, define a HTTPS_PROXY environmental variable that points to the proxy server. It will look like:

http://user:pass@proxy.company.com:8080

If your username or password contains an @ (eg user@workdomain.com), you need to change it to %40, like so:

http://user%40workdomain.com:pass@proxy.company.com:8080

Anki 2.0 expects to find HTTP_PROXY instead of HTTPS_PROXY.

To set environmental variables on Windows, please see https://www.google.com/search?q=windows+set+environmental+variable

If you’re on a Mac, please see http://stackoverflow.com/questions/135688/setting-environment-variables-in-os-x

Heavily locked down networks that intercept secure connections and present their own certificate instead may cause Anki to throw up SSL errors. In such environments, you may be able to work around the errors with https://ankiweb.net/shared/info/878367706

An alternative solution is to install a local proxy server, and point that proxy server at your normal proxy server. You can then tell Anki to use the local proxy, which will redirect requests to the proxy you normally use.

Profiles

If more than one person wants to use Anki on your computer, you can set up a separate profile for each user. Each user profile has their own collection, and own program settings. Add-ons are shared across profiles. Profiles are configured by going to the File menu and choosing "Switch Profile".

Only a single profile can be synced to an AnkiWeb account. If you have different users on your computer, each user will need to set up a separate AnkiWeb account for their profile. If you attempt to link two or more profiles to the same AnkiWeb account, you will overwrite the data from one profile with the data from the other.

Profiles are primarily intended to be used by different people, and are not recommended for splitting up your own content. If you have created multiple profiles for yourself, the best option is to merge them into a single profile. You can do so by exporting one deck from profile A, and then importing it into profile B, repeating for any other decks in profile A, until everything is in profile B.

AnkiDroid does not support profiles.

Browsing

The Browse window allows you to search through your cards and notes, and edit them. It is opened by clicking Browse in the main window, or by pressing B. It is comprised of three sections: the sidebar on the left, the card/note table on the top right, and the editing area on the bottom right. By positioning the mouse between two sections, it is possible to click and drag to expand one section and shrink the other.

Table Modes

Anki 2.1.45+ offers two modes: either cards or notes are shown in the data table. You can change the current mode by clicking the switch at the top, to the left of the search area, or pressing Alt+T. The switch also indicates if Cards or Notes are currently shown.

Note: For the sake of simplicity, this manual generally assumes the Cards mode to be the active one. Whenever "cards" is mentioned while selecting, finding, etc., the reader may substitute it for “notes", depending on the active mode.

The sidebar on the left allows quick access to common search terms. On Anki 2.1.45+, it also provides a searchbar, facilities to edit tags and decks, and a choice of two different tools, which are discussed in the following sections. You can switch tools using the toolbar at the top of the sidebar or the shortcuts Alt+1/2.

Search Tool

With this tool, the sidebar behaves as in previous versions: Clicking on an item will search for it.

You can hold down Ctrl (Command on Mac) while clicking in order to append the clicked item to the current search with an AND condition, instead of starting a new search. If you wanted to show learning cards that were also in the German deck for instance, you could click on "Learning", then Ctrl-click on "German".

You can hold down Shift to create an OR search instead of an AND. For example, you could click one deck, then Shift-click another to show cards from either of the decks in the same view.

You can hold down Alt (Option on Mac) in order to reverse the search (prepend a -): for example, to show all cards in a current deck that do not have a certain tag. Alt/Option can be combined with either Ctrl or Shift (e.g. clicking Ctrl+Alt

will result in adding a new search term that is negated).

On Anki 2.1.39+, you can also hold down both Ctrl and Shift together when clicking a search term to replace all occurrences of the same kind of search with the new one. Let's say you had previously typed in a complicated search expression like deck:Swahili (is:due or tag:important) and now want to perform the same search for your Urdu deck. You can hold Ctrl+Shift while clicking the Urdu deck in the sidebar to obtain the following search expression: deck:Urdu (is:due or tag:important).

Selection Tool

The Selection tool allows for selecting multiple items at the same time by holding down Ctrl- and Shift together, while clicking. It also enables drag-and-drop to reorder decks and tags.

Here is an example: Say you have the tags Math, Calculus, and Algebra. Click on the Calculus tag, then Ctrl-click on the Algebra tag. Now both tags are selected, click and drag any of the two onto the Math tag to make them both children of this tag. Behind the scene, Anki has renamed the two tags to Math::Calculus and Math::Algebra respectively and updated your notes accordingly.

Another use case for selecting multiple items is searching: If you right-click on a selection of items, you can choose Search > All/Any Selected Items. This can be combined with keyboard modifiers as described in Search Tool to append the resulting search to the current search.

Saved Searches

If you regularly search for the same thing, you can save the current search by right-clicking the topmost item in the sidebar, choosing “Save Current Search” and typing in a name.

Editing Items

You can delete or rename tags, decks, and saved searches directly from the sidebar, from the right-click menu, or by using a shortcut key (Del and F2 on Windows). Deletion even works for multiple items at once (see Selection Tool).

Finding Items

To find a certain item in the sidebar tree, type part of its name into the searchbar at the top to temporarily hide all items not matching the search.

Above the card list is a search box. You can type in various things there to search for cards. For information on the search syntax, see Searching.

Card/Note Table

The table's rows represent cards or notes that match the current search. When you click on a row, the corresponding note will be shown in the bottom section.

Rows

If you drag the mouse or hold Ctrl or Command to select multiple rows, the editor will be temporarily hidden. Various operations (such as changing the deck) can operate on multiple cards or notes at once, independent of the active mode. Therefore in Cards mode, a note is considered to be selected if any of its cards is selected, and in Notes mode, a card is considered to be selected if its note is selected.

Other operations (like showing card information) only operate on a single card — the so-called current, card or note, which is usually the one that was last selected or clicked. In Cards Mode, again, the current note is the note of the current card and in Notes mode, the current card is the first card of the current note.

The background colour will change depending on the card and note. In Cards mode, the first match will be used:

  1. if the card is flagged, use the flag colour,
  2. if the card is suspended, yellow,
  3. if the card's note is marked, purple.

In Notes mode, colour is only applied to marked notes.
For more information about marked notes and suspended cards, see Editing and More.

Columns

The columns are configurable: right click on one (or Ctrl-click on a Mac) to choose which columns you'd like to see. You can drag columns to reorder them. Clicking on a column will sort by that column; click again to reverse the sort order. Note that you cannot sort by the Question and Answer columns.

All columns are available for both Cards and Notes mode but sometimes with slightly different names and data. The following table lists the behaviours for both modes.

ColumnCards modeNotes mode
AnswerThe back side of the card in one line with the question stripped. You can also choose a custom format in the card type editor instead.The same as in Cards mode, only for the first card of the note.
Card(s)The name of the card's template.The number of cards the note has.
Card ModifiedThe last time changes were made to the card (e.g. when you reviewed the card and the review history and interval were updated).The last time changes were made to one of the note's cards.
CreatedThe same as in Notes mode for the card's note.The date the note was created.
DeckThe name of the deck the card is in.The number of different decks the note's cards are in, or the deck name if all cards are in the same deck.
DueThe due date for cards in review or (re)learning, and the position in the new card queue for new cards. The line is wrapped in brackets if the card is suspended or buried. Sorting is done by type and only then by date or position.The due date for the note's next due review or (re)learning card that is not suspended, buried or in a filtered deck.
(Avg.) EaseThe card's ease if it is not new.The average ease for the note's cards that are not new.
(Avg.) IntervalThe card's interval if the card is in review or relearning.The average interval for the note's cards that are in review or relearning.
LapsesHow often the card was rated “Again”.The total lapses for all cards of the note.
NoteThe same as in Notes mode for the card's note.The name of the note's notetype.
Note ModifiedThe same as in Notes mode for the card's note.The last time the note (e.g. the content of a field) was edited.
QuestionThe front side of the card in one line. You can also choose a custom format in the card type editor instead.The same as in Cards mode, only for the first card of the note.
ReviewsHow often the card has been reviewed.The total review count for all cards of the note.
Sort FieldThe same as in Notes mode for the card's note.The content of the note's field that is defined as the notetype's sort field. Only this one field can be displayed and sorted by. You can change the sort field by clicking Fields... in the editing area.
TagsThe same as in Notes mode for the card's note.The note's tags.

Editing Area

The bottom right area displays the note of the currently selected row. For more information about cards and notes, see Getting Started. For more information on formatting buttons, see Editing.

You can see a preview of what the currently selected card would look like when reviewing by clicking the Preview button next to the search box. Note that this will not display any type-the-answer fields on your cards, which makes it easier to preview the cards quickly. In Notes mode, the preview is shown for the first card of the selected note.

At the top of the browser window, you find a toolbar with various menus which in turn offer various actions that can be performed in the browser.

Edit

NameAction
UndoCancels the most recently performed operation.
Select AllSelect all rows displayed.
Select NotesShow only the currently selected notes and select all rows.
Invert SelectionSelect those rows not selected, and deselect the currently selected rows.
Create Filtered DeckShow the filtered deck dialog and set the current browser search as a filter. Use Alt / Option to set the second filter instead (requires scheduler version 2+).

Notes

Most of the following actions operate on the selected notes. They are also available through a context menu when a selected row is right-clicked in Notes mode. In Cards mode, they can be found in a submenu of the context menu.

NameAction
Add NotesOpen the Add dialog.
Export NotesOpen the Export dialog.
Add TagsAdd provided tags to all selected notes.
Remove TagsEnter tags and remove them from all selected notes.
Clear Unused TagsRemove all tags from the sidebar that are not used by any notes.
Toggle MarkIf the current note is marked (i.e., has the Marked tag), unmark all selected notes. If the current is not marked, mark all selected notes.
Change NotetypeConvert the selected notes from one type to another. For example, imagine you have a Russian notetype and a Computer notetype, and you accidentally added some computer-related text into a Russian note. You can use this option to fix that mistake. The scheduling of cards is not affected. Changing the type of a note requires a one-way sync.
Find DuplicatesOpen the Duplicates dialog.
Find and ReplaceOpen the Find and Replace dialog.
Manage NotetypesOpen the Notetypes dialog.
DeleteDelete all selected notes and their cards. It is not possible to remove individual cards, as individual cards are controlled by the templates.

Карточки

The following actions operate on the currently selected cards. They are also available through a context menu when a selected row is rightclicked in Cards mode. In Notes mode, they can be found in a submenu of the context menu.

NameAction
Change DeckMove currently selected cards to a different deck.
Set Due DateTurn cards into review cards, and make them due on a certain date. This can be useful for moving cards forward or back a few days when your study schedule is interrupted. Entering a range like 60-90 will give cards an interval between 60 and 90 days, which can be useful when you've imported a bunch of material you already know.
ForgetMove currently selected cards to the end of the new queue. The existing review history is preserved.
RepositionChange the order new cards will appear in. You can find out the existing positions by enabling the due column, as described in the table section above. If you run the reposition command when multiple cards are selected, it will apply increasing numbers to each card in turn. By default the number increases by one for each card, but this can be adjusted by changing the "step" setting. The Shift position of existing cards option allows you to insert cards between currently existing ones, pushing the currently existing ones apart. For instance, if you have five cards and you want to move 3, 4, and 5 between 1 and 2, selecting this setting would cause the cards to end up in the order 1, 3, 4, 5, 2. By contrast, if you turn this option off, 1 and 2 will get the same position number (and it will thus be unpredictable which of the cards with the same number comes up first). Please note that when enabled, any card with a higher position will be modified, and all of those changed cards will need to be sent the next time you sync.
Toggle SuspendSuspend or unsuspend all selected cards, depending on whether the current card is suspended or not.
FlagToggle the flags of all selected cards. Whether a flag is added or removed depends on whether the current card has the chosen flag.
InfoShow various information about the current card, including its review history. For more information, see Card Info.

Go

This menu exists to provide keyboard shortcuts to jump to various parts of the browser, and to go up and down the card list.

Find and Replace

To replace text in selected notes, you can either:

  • Right click on selected notes in the card list, and click Find and Replace.

  • In the Browser window, click Notes in the menu bar and click Find and Replace.

The regular expression option allows you to perform complex replacements. For example, given the following text in a field:

<img src="pic.jpg" />

Searching for:

<img src="(.+?)" />

and on Anki 2.1.28, replacing with:

${1}

on older Anki versions, replacing with:

\1

Will change the card to:

pic.jpg

A full discussion on regular expressions is outside the scope of this document. There are a number of syntax guides available on the web:

Finding Duplicates

You can use the Notes > Find Duplicates option to search for notes that have the same content. When you open the window, Anki will look at all of your note types and present a list of all possible fields. If you want to look for duplicates in the Back field, you’d select it from the list and then click Search.

By default, it will search in all note types that have the field you provided. This differs from the duplicate check when you add cards manually, which is limited to a single note type.

The Optional filter text box allows you to narrow down where Anki will look for duplicates. If you only want to search for duplicates in the "French Vocab" and "French Verbs" note types, you would enter:

note:'french vocab' or note:'french verbs'

Or you might want to look only for duplicates in a particular deck, so you could use:

deck:'myDeck'

The search syntax is the same as used when searching in the browser. For more information, see Searching.

You can click one of the links in the search results list to display the duplicate notes in that set. If the search brings up a large number of duplicates, you may wish to instead click the Tag Duplicates button, which will tag all matching notes with duplicate. You can then search for this tag in the browser and handle them all from the same screen.

Фильтрованные колоды и зубрёжка

When you study a regular deck in Anki, only a limited number of cards are shown: the cards Anki thinks you are about to forget, and a daily limit of new cards. This is generally useful, as it ensures you don't spend more time studying than necessary. But sometimes it can be useful to step outside of these normal limits, such as when you need to review for a test, focus on particular material, and so on. To make this possible, Anki provides a different type of deck called a 'filtered deck'.

Filtered decks offer a lot of possibilities. They can be used for previewing cards, cramming cards before a test, studying particular tags, catching up on a backlog with a particular sort order, reviewing ahead of schedule, going over the day's failed cards, and more.

Custom Study

The easiest way to create a filtered deck is with the Custom Study button, which appears at the bottom of the screen when you click on a deck. It offers some convenient preset filters for common tasks like reviewing the cards that you have failed that day. It will create a filtered deck called "Custom Study Session" and automatically open it for you.

If an existing "Custom Study Session" deck exists, it will be emptied before a new one is created. If you wish to keep a custom study deck, you can rename it from the deck list.

Here is a summary of each of the options:

Increase today's new card limit
Add more new cards to the deck you are currently studying. Note that unlike other options, this does 'not' create a new filtered deck, it modifies the existing deck.

Increase today's review card limit
If not all reviews due today were shown because of the daily review limit, this option allows you to show more of them. As with the new cards option, this modifies the existing deck.

Review forgotten cards
Show all the cards, for which you've answered Again (1) within the number of days you specify.

Review ahead
Show cards that will be due in the near future (the number of days you specify). This is useful for working through some of your older cards before a vacation, but it will not help with cards you have learnt recently. Please see the reviewing ahead section below for more info.

Preview new cards
Show cards that you have recently added, without converting them to review cards as they are answered.

Study by card state or tag
Select a certain number of cards from the current deck to study. You can choose to select new cards only, due cards only, or all cards; after you click "Choose Tags", you can also limit the selected cards by tags. If you wish to see all the cards in the deck (for instance, to study before a big test), you can set the number of cards to more than the number of cards in the deck.

Home Decks

When a card is moved to a filtered deck, it retains a link to the deck, from which it came. That previous deck is said to be the card's 'home deck'.

Cards automatically return to their home deck after they are studied in the filtered deck. This can be after a single review, or after multiple reviews, depending on your settings.

It is also possible to move all cards back to their home decks at once:

  • The "Empty" button in the study overview moves all cards in the filtered deck back to their home deck, but does not delete the empty filtered deck. This can be useful if you want to fill it again later (using the Rebuild button).

  • Deleting a filtered deck does the same thing as "Empty" does, but also removes the emptied deck from the deck list. No cards are deleted when you delete a filtered deck.

In the old scheduler, if you create, rebuild, empty, or delete a filtered deck while cards are still in learning, they will be turned back into new cards. In the case of failed reviews in relearning, any remaining relearning steps will be skipped. This was fixed in the v2 scheduler so cards are no longer reset.

Creating Manually

Advanced users can create filtered decks with arbitrary search strings (or 'filters'), instead of relying on the preset filters. To create a filtered deck manually, choose Create Filtered Deck from the Tools menu.

When you click the Build button, Anki finds cards that match the settings you specified, and temporarily moves them from their existing decks into your new filtered deck for study.

If you wish to fetch cards again using the same filter options (for instance, if you want to study all cards with a particular tag every day), you can use the Rebuild button at the bottom of the deck's overview screen.

The search area controls what cards Anki will gather. All of the searches possible in the browser are also possible for filtered decks, such as limiting to tags, finding cards forgotten a certain number of times, and so on. Please see the searching section of the manual for more information on the different possibilities.

Filtered decks cannot pull in cards that are suspended, buried, or already in a different filtered deck. And if you are using the [v1 scheduler], cards in (re)learning will not be included either. For this reason, a search in the browser may reveal cards that do not end up in the filtered deck.

The limit option controls how many cards will be gathered into the deck. The order you select controls both the order cards are gathered in, and the order they will be reviewed in. If you select "most lapses" and a limit of 20 for example, then Anki will show you only the 20 most lapsed cards.

For efficiency reasons, if your cram deck contains more than 1000 cards, only 1000 cards will be shown as due on the deck list and study screens.

Order

The "cards selected by" option controls the order that cards will appear in. If the maximum number of cards you select is lower than the number of cards that match the filter criteria, Anki will exclude the cards at the end of this sorted list first.

Oldest seen first
Display those cards first, that you haven't seen in reviews for the longest time.

Random
Randomize the order of all cards that match the filter criteria (use no set order).

Increasing intervals
Display cards that have the smallest interval first.

Decreasing intervals
Display cards that have the largest interval first.

Most lapses
Display those cards first, that you have failed the most times.

Order added
Display cards that you added first (i.e. those cards that have the earliest creation date).

Order due
Display cards with the earliest due date first.

Latest added first
Display those cards first, that you have most recently added to the deck. (This is the opposite of 'Order added'.)

Relative overdueness
Display those cards first, that are most overdue in relation to their current interval (for instance, a card with a current interval of 5 days overdue by 2 days displays before a card with a current interval of 5 years overdue by a week). This is useful if you have a large backlog that may take some time to get through and you want to review those cards first, that you are most in danger of forgetting.

Steps & Returning

Please see the section on learning as a reminder of how steps work.

By default, Anki will use the steps of a card’s home deck. If a new card would normally be reviewed twice when being learnt, the same thing will happen when you study it in a filtered deck.

Cards return to their home deck when (re)learning is complete. Thus if you have 3 learning steps, a new card will return to its home deck upon three presses of "Good" or a single press of "Easy".

v1 and v2 scheduler

In the v1 scheduler, the custom steps option allows you to override the home deck’s steps and provide your own steps instead. The provided steps apply to both cards being learnt, lapsed reviews, and reviews ahead of time. Please note, however, that from the v2 scheduler filtered decks no longer support custom steps.

v3 scheduler

Filtered decks with rescheduling disabled show 4 buttons in the v3 scheduler - the provided delay applies to the Again button, and Hard/Good will use 1.5x and 2x the provided delay. Easy will remove the card.

Counts

In a filtered deck, reviews that were already due are displayed in the review count as normal. Learning cards and non-due reviews are counted in the new card count, due to how the underlying implementation works. Reviews that were not due are not scheduled like new cards however: Anki uses a special algorithm that takes into account how close they were to their normal due time when reviewed.

Due Reviews

If the filtered deck includes cards that were due for review, they will be shown like they would have been in their original deck: they appear in the review card count at the bottom of the screen, and there are four choices for how well you remembered. Upon a correct answer, the card will be moved back to its home deck, and its next delay adjusted using the home deck's settings. If you forget the card, it will be shown according to the relearning steps defined in the home deck.

Reviewing Ahead

If your search included cards that are not due, Anki will show the reviews ahead of time.

Anki uses a special algorithm for these reviews that takes into account how early you are reviewing. If the cards were almost due to be shown, they will be given a new delay similar to what they would have received if you had reviewed them on time. If the cards are reviewed soon after they were scheduled however, their new delay will be similar to their previous delay. This calculation works on a sliding scale.

Because reviewing a card shortly after it is scheduled has little impact on scheduling (e.g. a card due tomorrow with a one day interval will remain due tomorrow if reviewed early), the "review ahead" custom study setting is not appropriate for repeated use. If used to go through a week's worth of cards before a trip, the mature cards will be rescheduled into the future and the new cards will remain at small intervals, because you don't know them well enough for them to be rescheduled further. If you review ahead again the next day, all you'll end up doing is going through those same new cards again, to little benefit.

Early reviews are included in the new card count rather than the review count, and will be shown according to the number of relearning steps defined in the home deck (unless you have provided custom steps). This means that if you have customized the number of relearning steps in the home deck, the non-due card may be shown more than once.

If you have multiple steps, Anki will only consider the first answer when deciding the next delay, and like relearning in normal decks, "Good" and "Easy" differ only in the step change and not the resulting delay.

Rescheduling

By default, Anki will return cards to their home decks with altered scheduling, based on your performance in the filtered deck. There is a reschedule cards based on my answers option available which alters this behaviour.

From the v2 scheduler, when rescheduling is disabled, cards are shown in a simple "preview mode", and when they are returned to the original deck, they are returned exactly as they started.

In the v1 scheduler, cards were presented more similarly to how they normally are, but studying cards had side effects, and the original position of new cards was lost when you studied them.

Catching Up

Filtered decks can be useful for catching up when you've fallen behind in your reviews. One Anki user describes the way they use the filtered decks to catch up as follows:

I did this for a backlog of 800 cards with filtered subdecks. Worked
very well for me.

Just Due filter with: "is:due prop:due>-7"

Over Due filter with: "is:due prop:due<=-7"

The Just Due deck will then contain cards that became due in the past
week. That's the deck you should study every day as it gets the cards
that become due regularly. With this you can study as if there weren't
any backlog.

The Over Due deck will contain your backlog — cards which you didn't
study in time. You can study them the same way you would study new
cards. They go back into the regular cards, so the number of overdue
will never grow as long as you keep your Just Due deck in check.

How long it takes depends on how many overdue cards you study each day
in addition to the ones that become due regularly. You can still motor
through them when you feel like it - or you can do a specific number per
day like you would for new cards. Up to you.

Searching

Anki's Browse screen and the Filtered Deck feature use a common method of searching for specific cards/notes.

Simple searches

When you type some text into the search box, Anki finds matching notes and displays their cards. Anki searches in all fields of the notes, but does not search for tags (see later in this section for how to search for tags). Some examples:

dog
search for "dog" - will match words like "doggy" and "underdog" too.

dog cat
finds notes that have both "dog" and "cat" on them, such as "raining cats and dogs".

dog or cat
finds notes with either "dog" or "cat".

dog (cat or mouse)
finds notes with dog and cat, or dog and mouse.

-cat
finds notes without the word "cat".

-cat -mouse
finds notes with neither "cat" nor "mouse".

-(cat or mouse)
same as the above.

"a dog"
finds notes with the exact sequence of characters "a dog" on them, such as "atta dog", but not "dog a" or "adog".

-"a dog"
finds notes without the exact phrase "a dog"

d_g
finds notes with d, <a letter>, g, like dog, dig, dug, and so on.

d*g
finds notes with d, <zero or more letters>, g, like dg, dog, dung, etc.

w:dog
search for "dog" on a word boundary - will match "dog", but not "doggy" or "underdog". Requires Anki 2.1.24+ or AnkiMobile 2.1.61+.

w:dog*
will match "dog" and "doggy", but not "underdog".

w:*dog
will match "dog" and "underdog", but not "doggy".

Things to note from the above:

  • Search terms are separated by spaces.

  • When multiple search terms are provided, Anki looks for notes that match all of the terms - an implicit 'and' is inserted between each term. On Anki 2.1.24+ and AnkiMobile 2.0.60+ you can be explicit if you like ("dog and cat" is the same as "dog cat"), but older Anki versions will treat "and" as just another word to search for.

  • You can use "or" if you only need one of the terms to match.

  • You can prepend a minus sign to a term to find notes that don’t match.

  • You can group search terms by placing them in parentheses, as in the dog (cat or mouse) example. This becomes important when combining OR and AND searches — in the example, with the parentheses, it matches either 'dog cat' or 'dog mouse', whereas without them it would match either 'dog and cat' or 'mouse'.

  • Anki is only able to search within formatting in the sort field you’ve configured. For example, if you add "example" to one of your fields, this will not be matched when searching for "example" unless that field is the sort field. If a word is not formatted, or the formatting does not change in the middle of the word, then Anki will be able to find it in any field.

  • Standard searches are case insensitive for Latin characters - a-z will match A-Z, and vice versa. Other characters such as Cyrillic are case sensitive in a standard search, but can be made case insensitive by searching on a word boundary or regular expression (w:, re:).

Limiting to a field

You can also ask Anki to match only if a particular field contains some text. Unlike the searches above, searching on fields requires an 'exact match' by default.

front:dog
find notes with a Front field of exactly "dog". A field that says "a dog" will not match.

front:*dog*
find notes with Front field containing dog somewhere

front:
find notes that have an empty Front field

front:_*
find notes that have a non-empty Front field

front:*
find notes that have a Front field, empty or not

fr*:text find notes in a field starting with "fr". Requires Anki 2.1.24+ or AnkiMobile 2.1.60+.

Tags, decks, cards and notes

tag:animal
find notes with the tag "animal"

tag:none
find notes with no tags

tag:ani*
find notes with tags starting with ani

deck:french
find cards in a French deck, or subdecks like French::Vocab

deck:french -deck:french::*
find cards in French, but not subdecks

deck:"french vocab"
searching when a deck has a space

"deck:french vocab"
also ok

deck:filtered
filtered decks only

-deck:filtered
normal decks only

card:forward
search for Forward cards

card:1
search for cards by template number - eg, to find the second cloze deletion for a note, you’d use card:2

note:basic
search for cards with a Basic note type

Ignoring accents/combining characters

Requires Anki 2.1.24+ or AnkiMobile 2.0.60+.

You can use nc: to remove combining characters ("no combining"). For example:

nc:uber
matches notes with "uber", "über", "Über" and so on.

nc:は
matches "は", "ば", and "ぱ"

Searches that ignore combining characters are slower than regular searches.

Regular expressions

Anki 2.1.24+ and AnkiMobile 2.0.60+ support searching in notes with "regular expressions", a standard and powerful way of searching in text.

Start a search with re: to search by regular expression. To make things easier, Anki will treat the following as raw input, so bear in mind the rules listed there.

Some examples:

"re:(some|another).*thing"
find notes that have "some" or "another" on them, followed by 0 or more characters, and then "thing"

re:\d{3}
find notes that have 3 digits in a row

Regular expressions can also be limited to a specific field. Please note that unlike the normal searches in a specific field, regular expressions in fields don't require an exact match. Eg:

front:re:[a-c]1
matches uppercase or lowercase a1, B1 or c1 that occurs anywhere in the "Front" field

front:re:^[a-c]1$
like the above, but will not match if any other text falls before or after a1/b1/c1.

You can learn more about regular expressions here: https://regexone.com/lesson/introduction_abcs

Some things to be aware of:

  • The search is case-insensitive by default; use (?-i) at the start to turn on case sensitivity.
  • Some text like spaces and newlines may be represented differently in HTML - you can use the HTML editor in the editing screen to see the underlying HTML contents.
  • For the specifics of Anki's regex support, please see the regex crate documentation: https://docs.rs/regex/1.3.9/regex/#syntax

Card state

is:due
review cards and learning cards waiting to be studied

is:new
new cards

is:learn
cards in learning

is:review
reviews (both due and not due) and lapsed cards

is:suspended
cards that have been manually suspended

is:buried
cards that have been buried, either automatically or manually

Note that with the new scheduler, Anki now distinguishes between manually and automatically buried cards so you can unbury one set without the other.

Cards that have lapsed fall into several of these categories, so it may be useful to combine them to get more precise results:

is:learn is:review
cards that have lapsed and are awaiting relearning

-is:learn is:review
review cards, not including lapsed cards

is:learn -is:review
cards that are in learning for the first time

flag:1
cards with a red flag

flag:2
cards with an orange flag

flag:3
cards with a green flag

flag:4
cards with a blue flag

Card properties

prop:ivl>=10
cards with interval of 10 days or more

prop:due=1
cards due tomorrow

prop:due=-1
cards due yesterday that haven’t been answered yet

prop:due>-1 prop:due<1
cards due between yesterday and tomorrow

prop:reps<10
cards that have been answered less than 10 times

prop:lapses>3
cards that have moved into relearning more than 3 times

prop:ease!=2.5
cards easier or harder than default

Note that due only matches review cards and learning cards with an interval of a day or more: cards in learning with small intervals like 10 minutes are not included.

Recent Events

Added

added:1
cards added today

added:7
cards added in last week

The check is made against card creation time rather than note creation time, so cards that were generated within the time frame will be included even if their notes were added a long time ago.

Edited

edited:n
cards where the note text was added/edited in the last n days.

This requires Anki 2.1.28+ / AnkiMobile 2.0.64+.

Answered

rated:1
cards answered today

rated:1:2
cards answered Hard (2) today

rated:7:1
cards answered Again (1) over the last 7 days

rated:31:4
cards answered Easy (4) in the last month

Rating searches had been limited to 31 days before version 2.1.39.

First Answered

On version 2.1.45+, you can also search for the very first review only:

introduced:1
cards answered for the first time today

introduced:365
cards answered for the first time within the last 365 days

Matching special characters

This section was written for Anki 2.1.36+ - earlier versions did not support escaping characters in certain situations.

As shown in the previous section, some characters like *, _ and " have a special meaning in Anki. If you need to locate those characters in a search, you need to tell Anki not to treat them specially.

  • Space
    To match something including spaces, enclose the "entire term" in double quotes. If it is a colon search, you also have the option to only quote the part:"after the colon".

  • ", * and _
    Add a backslash before these characters to treat them literally. For example, _ will match any single character, but \_ matches only an actual underscore.

  • \
    Because a backlash is used to remove the special meaning from other characters, it too is treated specially. If you need to search for an actual backslash, use \\ instead of \.

  • ( and )
    You can search for parentheses either by enclosing the full term in quotes, and/or by using a backslash. That is, "some(text)", some\(text\) and "some\(text\)" are all equivalent, but some(text) is not.

  • -
    Starting a search term with - usually inverts it: -dog matches everything except dog for example. If you instead wish to include an actual hyphen, you can either use a backslash, or include the text in quotes, such as \-.- or "-.-".

  • :
    Colons have to be escaped unless they are preceded by another, unescaped colon. So w:e:b is a word boundary search for e:b, w\:e\:b searches literally for w:e:b and w\:e:b searches the field w:e for b (see field searches).

Raw input

Text preceded by certain keywords (like re:) will be treated as raw input. That is, the charcters listed above largely lose their special meaning. In such a context, only a minimum of escaping is required to prevent ambiguity:

  • " must be escaped.

  • Spaces and unescaped parentheses require the search term to be quoted.

  • The search term must not end in an odd number of backslashes.

Object IDs

nid:123
all cards of the note with note id 123

cid:123
the card with card id 123

Note and card IDs can be found in the card info dialog in the browser. These searches may also be helpful when doing add-on development or otherwise working closely with the database.

Object IDs will not work in the mobile clients, and are not intended to be used in filtered decks at the moment.

Importing

Anki can import text files, packaged Anki decks created by the export feature, Mnemosyne 2.0 .db files, and SuperMemo .xml files. To import a file, click the File menu and then "Import".

Text Files

Any plain text file that contains fields separated by commas, semicolons or tabs can be imported into Anki, provided some conditions are met.

  • The files must be plain text (myfile.txt). Other formats like myfile.xls, myfile.rtf, myfile.doc must be saved as a plain text file first.

  • The files must be in UTF-8 format (see below).

  • Anki determines the number of fields in the file by looking at the first (non-commented) line. Any lines in the file which have a different number of fields will be ignored.

  • The first line also defines the separating character – if Anki finds a ';' on the first line it will use that, if it finds a comma it’ll use that, etc.

Fields in your text file can be mapped to any field in your notes, including the tags field. You can choose which field in the text file corresponds to which field in the note when you import.

When you import a text file, you can choose what deck to put the cards in. Keep in mind that if you have the deck override option set for one or more of your templates, the cards will go to that deck rather than the one you’ve selected.

This is an example of a valid file:

foo bar; bar baz; baz quux
apple; banana; grape

There are two ways to include newlines in fields.

Escape the multi-lines by placing the contents of the field in quotation marks:

hello; "this is
a two line answer"
two; this is a one line one

Because quotes are used to mark where a field begins and ends, if you wish to include them inside your field, you need to replace a single doublequote with two doublequotes to "escape" them from the regular handling, like so:

field one;"field two with ""escaped quotes"" inside it"

When you use a spreadsheet program like Libreoffice to create the CSV file for you, it will automatically take care of escaping double quotes.

Use HTML new lines:

hello; this is<br>a two line answer
two; this is a one line one

You need to turn on the "allow HTML in fields" checkbox in the import dialog for HTML newlines to work.

Escaped multi-lines will not work correctly if you are using cloze deletions that span multiple lines. In this case, please use HTML newlines instead.

You can also include tags in another field and select it as a tags field in the import dialog:

first field; second field; tags

This is an example of a valid file where the first line is ignored (#):

# this is a comment and is ignored
foo bar; bar baz; baz quux
field1; field2; field3

Spreadsheets and UTF-8

If you have non-Latin characters in your file (such as accents, Japanese and so on), Anki expects files to be saved in a 'UTF-8 encoding'. The easiest way to do this is to use the free LibreOffice spreadsheet program instead of Excel to edit your file, as it supports UTF-8 easily, and also exports multi-line content properly, unlike Excel. If you wish to keep using Excel, please see this forum post for more information.

To save your spreadsheet to a file Anki can read with LibreOffice, go to File>Save As, and then select CSV for the type of file. After accepting the default options, LibreOffice will save the file and you can then import the saved file into Anki.

HTML

Anki can treat text imported from text files as HTML (the language used for web pages). This means that text with bold, italics and other formatting can be exported to a text file and imported again. If you want to include HTML formatting, you can check the "allow HTML in fields" checkbox when importing. You may wish to turn this off if you’re trying to import cards whose content contains angle brackets or other HTML syntax.

If you wish to use HTML for formatting your file but also wish to include angle brackets or ampersands, you may use the following replacements:

CharacterReplacement
<&lt;
>&gt;
&&amp;

Importing Media

If you want to include audio and pictures from a text file import, copy the files into the collection.media folder. Do not put subdirectories in the media folder, or some features will not work.

After you’ve copied the files, change one of the fields in your text file as follows.

<img src="myimage.jpg">

or

[sound:myaudio.mp3]

Alternatively, you can use the find and replace feature in the browse screen to update all the fields at once. If each field contains text like "myaudio", and you wish to make it play a sound, you’d search for (.*) and replace it with "[sound:\1.mp3]", with the 'regular expressions' option enabled.

When importing a text file with these references, you must make sure to enable the "Allow HTML" option.

You might be tempted to do this in a template, like:

<img src="{{field name}}">

Anki doesn’t support this for two reasons: searching for used media is expensive, as each card has to be rendered, and such functionality isn’t obvious to shared deck users. Please use the find & replace technique instead.

Bulk Media

Another option for importing large amounts of media at once is to use the media import add-on. This add-on will automatically create notes for all files in a folder you select, with the filenames on the front (minus the file extension, so if you have a file named apple.jpg, the front would say 'apple') and the images or audio on the back. If you would like a different arrangement of media and filenames, you can change the note type of the created cards afterwards.

Adding Tags

If you want to add 'tag1' and 'tag2' to every line you’re importing, add the following to the top of the text file:

tags:tag1 tag2

Duplicates and Updating

When importing text files, Anki uses the first field to determine if a note is unique. By default, if the file you are importing has a first field that matches one of the existing notes in your collection and that existing note is the same type as the type you’re importing, the existing note’s other fields will be updated based on content of the imported file. A drop-down box in the import screen allows you to change this behaviour, to either ignore duplicates completely, or import them as new notes instead of updating existing ones.

The duplicate check is done for your 'entire collection', not just in the current deck. If Anki is indicating that notes have not changed when you expected them to be imported, please check that the notes are not already in your collection somewhere.

If you have updating turned on and older versions of the notes you’re importing are already in your collection, they will be updated in place (in their current decks) rather than being moved to the deck you have set in the import dialog. If notes are updated in place, the existing scheduling information on all their cards will be preserved.

For info on how duplicates are handled in .apkg files, please see the Deck Packages section.

Экспортирование

Exporting allows you to save part of your collection as a text file or packaged Anki deck. To export, click the File menu and choose 'Export'.

Text Files

If you choose "Notes in Plain Text", Anki will write the contents of the notes into a text file. Each field is separated by a tab. If you edit the resulting file and don't modify the first field, you can later import that file back into Anki and Anki will update your notes based on your edits, provided you import back into the same note type.

If you find yourself needing to edit the first field as well, you'll need to change the format of your note type so that the first field is an ID number rather than actual text. (You can install the Add note id add-on to make this easier.)

In order for formatting to be preserved when you import text back in, the text is exported with all the HTML formatting embedded in it.

Packaged Decks

A 'packaged deck' consists of cards, notes, note types, and any sounds or images bundled up into a file ending with .apkg or .colpkg. You can use packaged decks to transfer cards between people, or for backing up parts of your collection.

There are two different kinds of packaged decks.

Collection (.colpkg)

When you export all decks with scheduling included, this is called a 'collection package'. Anki will copy your entire collection into a file ending in .colpkg, and place it on your desktop. A collection package is used to back up your collection, or copy it to another device.

Collection packages created with previous versions of Anki were called collection.apkg.

When this file is later imported, Anki will delete all the current cards in the collection, and replace the collection with the items in the file. This is useful for copying your collection back and forth between devices.

Existing media in your collection is not deleted when you import a collection package. To delete unused media, use Tools>Check Media.

Deck (.apkg)

Deck packages contain a single deck (and any child decks it may have). They have a filename ending with .apkg, but a filename other than collection.apkg. When you import a deck package, Anki will add the contents into your collection, rather than overwriting your collection.

If some notes in the deck package have previously been imported, Anki will keep the version with the most recent modification time. So if you download an updated deck, the edits that have been made in the updated version will be made in your collection as well, but if you re-import an unchanged deck after making edits in your collection, the changes in your collection will be kept.

If you choose not to include scheduling information, Anki will assume that you are sharing the deck with other people, and will remove marked and leech tags so that they will have a clean copy of it.

Managing Files and Your Collection

Checking Your Collection

It is a good idea to occasionally check your collection file for problems. You can do this via the Tools>Check Database menu item. Checking the database ensures the file has not been corrupted, rebuilds some internal structures, and optimizes the file.

When you check the database, your tag list is also rebuilt. When you delete individual decks or cards, Anki does not update the list of used tags, as it's inefficient to do so. If you want to clear old tags out from the list that are no longer in use, checking your database is the way to do it.

Please note that Anki will automatically optimize your collection once every 2 weeks. This optimization ensures the collection performs well, but it does not check for errors or rebuild the tag list when automatically optimizing.

File Locations

On Windows, the latest Anki versions store your Anki files in your appdata folder. You can access it by opening the file manager, and typing %APPDATA%\Anki2 in the location field. Older versions of Anki stored your Anki files in a folder called Anki in your Documents folder.

On Mac computers, recent Anki versions store all their files in the ~/Library/Application Support/Anki2 folder. The Library folder is hidden by default, but can be revealed in Finder by holding down the option key while clicking on the Go menu. If you're on an older Anki version, your Anki files will be in your Documents/Anki folder.

On Linux, recent Anki versions store your data in ~/.local/share/Anki2, or $XDG_DATA_HOME/Anki2 if you have set a custom data path. Older versions of Anki stored your files in ~/Documents/Anki or ~/Anki.

Within the Anki folder, the program-level and profile-level preferences are stored in a file called prefs.db.

There is also a separate folder for each profile. The folder contains:

  • Your notes, decks, cards and so on in a file called collection.anki2

  • Your audio and images in a collection.media folder

  • A backups folder

  • Some system files

You should never copy or move your collection while Anki is open. Doing so could cause your collection to become corrupt. Please do not move or modify the other files in the folder either.

Startup Options

If you have made a destructive change on one computer and have an undamaged copy on another computer, you may wish to start Anki without syncing in order to use the full sync option without first downloading the changes. Similarly, if you are experiencing problems with Anki, you might want to (or might be instructed to) disable add-ons temporarily to see if one might be causing the problem. You can do both of these things by holding down the Shift key while starting Anki.

It is possible to specify a custom folder location during startup. This is an advanced feature that is primarily intended to be used with portable installations, and we recommend you use the default location in most circumstances.

The syntax to specify an alternate folder is as follows:

anki -b /path/to/anki/folder
  • If you have multiple profiles, you can pass -p <name> to load a specific profile.

  • To change the interface language, use -l <iso 639-1 language code>, such as "-l ja" for Japanese.

If you always want to use a custom folder location, you can modify your shortcut to Anki. On Windows, right-click on the shortcut, choose Properties, select the Shortcut tab, and add "-b \path\to\data\folder" after the path to the program, which should leave you with something like

"C:\Program Files\Anki\anki.exe" -b "C:\AnkiDataFolder"

You can also use this technique with the -l option to easily use Anki in different languages.

On Windows, you should use a backslash (\) not a forward slash (/).

On a Mac there is no easy way to alter the behaviour when clicking on the Anki icon, but it is possible to start Anki with a custom base folder from a terminal:

open /Applications/Anki.app --args -b ~/myankifolder

Alternatively, you can define the environment variable "ANKI_BASE". On Windows, you can define the environment variable with:

set "ANKI_BASE=C:/path/to/AnkiDataFolder"

On Linux and Mac OS, you can use:

export ANKI_BASE="/path/to/AnkiDataFolder"

DropBox and File Syncing

We do not recommend you sync your Anki folder directly with a third-party synchronization service, as it can lead to database corruption when files are synced while in use.

If you just want to synchronize your media, you can link external folders into services like DropBox. Please see DropboxWiki: Sync Folders Outside Dropbox (archive.org) for more info.

If you wish to keep your collection in sync as well, it is strongly recommended that you create a script that copies your files from your synced folder to a local folder, launches Anki, and then copies the files back when Anki is closed. This will ensure that the files are never synchronized while they are open.

Network Filesystems

We strongly recommend you have Anki store your files on a local hard disk, as network filesystems can lead to database corruption. If a network filesystem is your only option, regular use of Tools>Check Database to detect corruption is recommended.

Running from a Flash Drive

On Windows, Anki can be installed on a USB / flash drive and run as a portable application. The following example assumes your USB drive is drive G.

  • Copy the \Program Files\Anki folder to the flash drive, so you have a folder like G:\Anki.

  • Create a text file called G:\anki.bat with the following text:

    g:\anki\anki.exe -b g:\ankidata

If you would like to prevent the black command prompt window from remaining open, you can instead use:

start /b g:\anki\anki.exe -b g:\ankidata
  • Double-clicking on anki.bat should start Anki with the user data stored in G:\ankidata.

The full path including drive letter is required - if you try using \anki\anki.exe instead you will find syncing stops working.

Media syncing with AnkiWeb may not work if your flash drive is formatted as FAT32. Please format the drive as NTFS to ensure media syncs correctly.

Backups

Each time your collection is closed (when closing Anki, switching profiles, or synchronizing your deck), Anki exports your collection into the backups folder. By default Anki will store up to 30 backups; you can adjust this in the preferences.

Automatic backups do not protect against disk or computer failure, and do not extend to your media. To keep your collections safe, please consider making manual backups too.

The easiest way to make a manual backup is to use the File>Export menu item to export all decks with scheduling and media information included, which will save your data to a .colpkg file.

If you want to back up multiple profiles and your add-ons as well, you can make a complete copy of your Anki folder. Please make sure you close Anki first, as backups may be corrupt, if they are run while Anki is open.

To restore from an automatic backup:

  1. From the File menu, select Switch Profile to show the Profiles window.

  2. Select the profile you wish to restore on the left.

  3. Click the Open Backup…​ button.

  4. Choose Yes and the available backups will appear.

  5. Open a backup based on the date you wish to restore to.

  6. Check that that the backup that was restored was the one you intended. If you wish to try a different backup, return to step 1.

  7. Anki has disabled automatic syncing and backups while you check the backup. When you're happy with the backup you've selected, quit Anki and start it again to return to the normal behaviour.

Anki also logs deleted notes to a text file called deleted.txt in your profile folder. These notes are in a text format that can be read by File>Import, though please note the import feature only supports a single note type at one time, so if you have deleted notes from different note types, you'll need to split the file into separate files for each note type first.

Inaccessible Harddisk

If Anki can't write to files in the Anki folder, a message will be displayed on startup saying that Anki can't write to the harddisk, and Anki will close. If you're unsure how to fix the permissions, please contact someone near you who is knowledgeable about computers and can help you out.

Permissions of Temp Folder

Anki uses the system's temporary folder to store temporary data. If the permissions of this folder have been changed from the default settings by a rogue app or buggy antivirus app, Anki will not function properly.

If you're on a Windows 7 machine, the general steps to fix the problem are listed below. As this is somewhat complicated, please ask someone knowledgeable about Windows if you are not sure.

  1. Click on the start bar, and type in %temp% (including the percents), then hit Enter.

  2. Go up one folder, and locate the temp folder. Right click on it, and choose Properties.

  3. In the security tab, click on Advanced.

  4. Click on the Owner tab. If you're not listed as the owner, click the button to take ownership.

  5. On the permissions tab, ensure that you have full control. On a default W7 install the control will actually be inherited from c:\users\your-username.

Corrupt Collections

Anki uses a file format that is robust against program and computer crashes, but it's still possible for your collection to become corrupt if the files are modified while Anki is open, stored on a network drive, or corrupted by a bug.

When you run Tools>Check Database, you will receive a message if Anki detects the file has been corrupted. The best way to recover from this is to restore from the most recent automatic backup, but if your backup is too old, then you can attempt to repair the corruption instead.

On Linux, make sure sqlite3 is installed. On a Mac, it should be installed already. On Windows, download http://www.sqlite.org/sqlite-3_6_23.zip.

Next, create a backup of your collection.anki2 file, in case something goes wrong with the steps below.

Linux/OSX

Open a terminal, change to the folder your collection is located in, and type:

sqlite3 collection.anki2 .dump > dump.txt

Open the resulting dump.txt file in a text editor, and look at the final line. If it reads "rollback;", change it to "commit;"

Then run the following in a terminal:

cat dump.txt | sqlite3 temp.file

Make sure you use temp.file - do not put collection.anki2 on the right, or you will blank out the file. When you're done, proceed to the final step.

Windows

Copy the sqlite3.exe program and your deck to your desktop. Then go to Start>Run and type in cmd.exe.

If you're on a recent Windows, the command prompt may not start on your desktop. If you don't see desktop displayed in the command prompt, type something like the following, replacing 'administrator' with your login name.

cd C:\Users\Administrator\Desktop

Then type:

sqlite3 collection.anki2 .dump > dump.txt

Open the resulting dump.txt file in a text editor, and look at the final line. If it reads "rollback;", change it to "commit;"

Then run the following in a terminal:

type dump.txt | sqlite3 temp.file

Make sure you use temp.file - do not put collection.anki2 on the right, or you will blank out the file. When you're done, proceed to the final step.

Final Step

Check that you didn't get an error message, and that temp.file is not empty. The procedure optimizes the collection in the process, so it's normal for the new file to be somewhat smaller than the old one.

When you've confirmed the file is not empty:

  • rename the original collection.anki2 file to something else

  • rename temp.file to collection.anki2

  • move collection.anki2 back into your collection folder, overwriting the old version

  • start Anki and go to Tools>Check Database to make sure the collection has been successfully restored.

Graphs and Statistics

Card Info

You can display information about a card by using the Cards>Info menu item, or by right-clicking on the card and then selecting Info. Most of the displayed information should be self-explanatory. A few notes:

Position
Only shown when the card is new, it shows the order the card will appear in relative to other new cards. The position can be changed in the browser.

Interval
The delay from one review to the next. Times are abbreviated; "0s, 1m, 3h, 4d, 5mo, 6y" refers to seconds, minutes, hours, days, months and years respectively.

Ease
The approximate amount the interval will grow when you answer a review card with the "Good" button.

Statistics

The statistics window is accessed by clicking on Stats button at the top of the main window, or by pressing T. The statistics window will show statistics from the currently selected deck and any subdecks. If you click on "collection" on the bottom left, statistics will be shown for your entire collection instead. On 2.1.28+, additionally, you can display graphs for arbitrary searches by adding filters in the search box.

Anki 2.1.28+ introduces redesigned graphs. The old graphs are currently still accessible with a Shift-click on the Stats button.

For Anki 2.1.28+, by default Anki will show you statistics for the previous year. You can change this to all history scope or deck life scope at the top. (The "today" section at the top is of course unaffected by this selection.)

For older versions of Anki, by default Anki will show you statistics for the previous month. You can change this to a year scope or deck life scope at the bottom. (The “today” section at the top is of course unaffected by this selection.)

Clicking on "Save PDF" will save an PDF document of the statistics to a file on your desktop to make it easy to share your statistics with others.

When you delete notes, their review history is maintained in Anki. It will not be included when looking at statistics for a specific deck (as Anki has no way of knowing which deck the deleted cards belonged to), but will be included when you look at statistics for the whole collection.

Types of Cards

The stats window uses some terms that you may not be familiar with:

Mature
A mature card is one that has an interval of 21 days or greater.

Young
A young card is one that has an interval of less than 21 days, but is not in learning.

Learn
A learning card is one that is still in learning mode (using whatever steps may be defined in the deck’s options).

Relearn
A relearning card is a card that you have failed in review mode, thus returning it to learning mode to be relearned.

Unseen
An unseen card is one that has been added to your collection but has not yet entered learning mode. Unseen cards are sometimes referred to as "new" cards, especially when they are in the "new" queue to be shown for the first time.

Today

At the top of the statistics window is a brief list of textual statistics about the reviews that you have completed today. A “review” in this context is 'one answering of a card', so a card might count as multiple reviews if it needed to be seen multiple times, and a learning card answered also counts as a “review.” A couple of the stats whose meaning may not be immediately obvious:

Again count
This is the number of reviews that you have failed (i.e., pressed Again on). The correct percentage listed afterwards is the number of cards you did 'not' fail divided by the total number of cards you studied.

Learn, Review, Relearn, Filtered
The number of reviews that were learning cards, review cards, relearning cards, or studied in a filtered deck when not due.

The stats for the current day are not a good overall indicator of your learning progress; everyone has bad days and good days, and seeing that you got a lower percentage correct on a particular day should not be cause for concern. The remainder of the stats, which take longer periods of time into account, will give more useful information if you wish to try to change your study habits or scheduling settings based on your performance.

The “today” statistics are unaffected by the time period selected at the bottom of the window.

The Graphs

Forecast
This graph shows an estimated number of reviews that will be due on a given day in the future if you learn no new cards and fail no cards. The bars and the left axis show the number of cards due on each day if you study all cards each day, while the line and the right axis show the number of cards due on that day if you don’t study at all until then. Note that the forecast graph does not count reviews that are currently overdue, so if you have a large backlog, the overdue cards will not be displayed.

Review Count
This graph counts the number of card reviews you have done. The bars may correspond to days, weeks, or months, depending on the time period you’ve selected at the bottom of the screen. The differently colored blocks show how many of the cards you answered on each day were mature, young, relearning, or learning cards. There is also a separate group for cards answered in a filtered/cram deck while they were not due. The line and the right axis shows the cumulative total for each type of review as time progresses across the graph (so at 0 days, it would display the number for the entire time period displayed on the graph).

Review Time
This graph works exactly like Review Count, except that it deals with the amount of time you spent on each card rather than the number of cards answered.

Intervals
This graph displays the number of cards that have a given interval (the delay between two reviews). The line and the right axis tell you what percentage of your cards have an interval of less than or equal to the time below that point. The time scope has a different effect on this graph than other graphs: rather than changing which cards or period of studying is included, it limits how far out the intervals are displayed to (so 14-month intervals are not displayed at all on a 1-year graph).

Hourly Breakdown
This graph shows what percentage of total reviews you have passed (i.e., not pressed Again on) during given hours. The larger, darker bars and left axis show the success rate; the thinner, lighter bars and right axis show the number of reviews you’ve made at that hour (so you know how significant the results are).

Answer Buttons
This graph shows how many times you’ve chosen the Again, Hard, Good, or Easy button while studying learning/new, young, and mature cards. Anki also displays the percentage of correct reviews for each type of card.

Cards Types
This pie chart shows what percentage of your deck or collection consists of mature, unseen, young/learn, and suspended cards. If you wish to calculate a more precise percentage, the key shows the exact number of cards in each section, and the total number of cards is displayed to the side.

Manual Analysis

If you’re interested in getting information from your statistics other than what Anki provides, it is possible to access the data directly. Because of the complexity involved, this is not something we can provide any support for.

One option is to write an add-on that adds another graph or more details to the statistics window. There are several add-ons of this sort on AnkiWeb already, which you can look at to get an idea of how it works.

A more powerful and more complex option is to extract the review log information directly from Anki’s database and analyze it in an external program. Anki uses a database format called SQLite. There are many tools available for working with SQLite databases; one of the easiest to start with is called SQLite Browser, which will allow you to look around the database as well as export a CSV version of tables for import into another program.

The most important table for statistics is the 'revlog' table, which stores an entry for each review that you conduct. The columns are as follows:

id
The time at which the review was conducted, as the number of milliseconds that had passed since midnight UTC on January 1, 1970. (This is sometimes known as 'Unix epoch time', especially when in straight seconds instead of milliseconds.)

cid
The ID of the card that was reviewed. You can look up this value in the id field of the 'cards' table to get more information about the card, although note that the card could have changed between when the revlog entry was recorded and when you are looking it up. It is also the millisecond timestamp of the card’s creation time.

usn
This column is used to keep track of the sync state of reviews and provides no useful information for analysis.

ease
Which button you pressed at the end of the review (1 for Again, 4 for Easy).

ivl
The new interval that the card was pushed to after the review. Positive values are in days; negative values are in seconds (for learning cards).

lastIvl
The interval the card had before the review. Cards introduced for the first time have a last interval equal to the Again delay.

factor
The new ease factor of the card in permille (parts per thousand). If the ease factor is 2500, the card’s interval will be multiplied by 2.5 the next time you press Good.

time
The amount of time (in milliseconds) you spent on the question and answer sides of the card before selecting an ease button.

type
This is 0 for learning cards, 1 for review cards, 2 for relearn cards, and 3 for early "cram" cards (cards being studied in a filtered deck when they are not due).

Media

Anki stores the sounds and images used in your notes in a folder next to the collection. For more on the folder location, please see the file locations section. When you add media within Anki, either by using the paperclip icon in the editor or by pasting it into a field, Anki will copy it from its original location into the media folder. This makes it easy to back up your collection’s media or move it to another computer.

You can use the Tools>Check Media menu option to scan your notes and media folder. It will generate a report of files in the media folder that are not used by any notes, and media referenced in notes but missing from your media folder. It does not scan question or answer templates, which is why you can’t place media references to fields in the template. If you need a static image or sound on every card, name it with a leading _ (e.g., '_dog.jpg') to tell Anki to ignore it when checking for media. If you delete media using the unused media check, Anki will move it into your operating system’s trash folder, so you can recover if you accidentally delete media that shouldn’t have been deleted.

Anki uses a program called mpv (and mplayer as a fallback) in order to support sounds and videos. A wide variety of file formats are supported, but not all of these formats will work on AnkiWeb and the mobile clients. MP3 audio and MP4 video seems to be the most universally supported.

Math and Symbols

MathJax

MathJax is a modern, browser-based typesetting system, useful for mathematical and chemical equations. It does not require the installation of any extra software, so it is easy to use, and it is recommended for most users.

MathJax is supported out of the box on Anki 2.1+, AnkiMobile, and AnkiDroid 2.9+.

To try it out:

  1. Type the following in a field:

    \sqrt{x}
    
  2. Select the text you just typed.

  3. Click the rightmost button in the editor, and choose "MathJax inline" from the menu. Anki will change the text so it reads:

    \(\sqrt{x}\)
    
  4. If you click the Cards…​ button, you’ll see a preview of how the equation will appear when the card is reviewed.

Anki’s MathJax support expects content in TeX format. If you’re not familiar with TeX formatting, please see this cheatsheet. Please note that point 2 does not apply in Anki - Anki uses \( and \) for inline equations, and \[ and \] for display equations.

If you want to use newlines in a MathJax expression, please use Shift+Enter instead of just Enter, as a normal newline will prevent MathJax from working correctly.

Anki includes built in support for mhchem for rendering chemical equations. Please see the 'chemical equations' section and the following sections for more information: https://mhchem.github.io/MathJax-mhchem/

It is possible to customize some settings.

LaTeX

LaTeX is a powerful typesetting system, useful for entering mathematical formulas, chemical formulas, musical notation and so on. Anki provides some support for LaTeX, allowing you to enter LaTeX code in your notes. When you review a card, Anki will call LaTeX and display the generated image instead.

LaTeX is more work to set up, and images can only be generated with the computer version of Anki - though once generated, the images can be displayed by mobile clients. Because of the extra complexity LaTeX brings, it is only recommended for users that need more features than MathJax provides.

Assumed Knowledge

Anki’s LaTeX support is not turn-key: it is assumed that you know how to use LaTeX already, and that you have it installed. If you have no experience with LaTeX, please consult one of the many guides available on the internet. If you are having trouble with markup, please ask on a LaTeX forum.

To install LaTeX, on Windows use MiKTeX; on OSX use MacTex, and on Linux use your distro’s package manager. Dvipng must also be installed.

On Windows, go to Settings in MikTek’s maintenance window, and make sure "Install missing packages on the fly" is set to "No", not to "Ask me first". If you continue to have difficulties, one user reported that running Anki as an administrator until all the packages were fetched helped.

On OSX, LaTeX has only been tested with MacTex and BasicTex. If you use BasicTex, you need to install dvipng separately, with the following command:

sudo tlmgr update --self; sudo tlmgr install dvipng

The command may not be on the path, so you may need to provide the full path, eg /usr/local/texlive/2014basic/bin/x86_64-darwin/tlmgr.

If you are not using the above LaTeX packages, you will need to use the edit LaTeX add-on to specify the full path to latex and dvipng.

Web/Mobile

When you review a card with LaTeX on it, Anki will generate an image for that LaTeX and place the image in your collection’s media folder for future use. The web & mobile clients will display these images if they already exist, but can not generate the images on their own.

To avoid having to review all your cards at least once before you can study on the other clients, Anki can generate the images in bulk for you. To generate all the images, please go to Tools>Check Media. After that, syncing should upload the generated media to AnkiWeb and the other clients.

Example

The most general way to input LaTeX content is to surround it with [latex][/latex] tags. There’s a shortcut button for this documented in the editor section.

[latex] tags must be used inside a field - placing them in the card template will cause problems.

For example, entering the following on the front of an Anki flashcard:

Does [latex]\begin{math}\sum_{k = 1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k}\end{math}[/latex] converge?

will produce this when the flashcard is viewed:

convergence question

The formula in the example above is called a 'text formula', because it is displayed right within the non-mathematical text. In contrast, the following example shows a 'displayed formula':

Does the sum below converge?

[latex]\begin{displaymath}\sum_{k = 1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k}\end{displaymath}[/latex]

convergence question 2

'Text formulas' and 'display formulas' are the most common type of LaTeX expressions, so Anki provides abbreviated versions of them. Expressions of the form:

[latex]\begin{math}...\end{math}[/latex]

can be shortened to

[$]...[/$]

and expressions of the form

[latex]\begin{displaymath}...\end{displaymath}[/latex]

can be shortened to

[$$]...[/$$]

For example, the two LaTeX snippets shown before are equivalent to

Does [$]\sum_{k = 1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k}[/$] converge?

and

Does the sum below converge?

[$$]\sum_{k = 1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{k}[/$$]

respectively.

Packages

Anki allows you to customize the LaTeX preamble so you can import custom packages for chemistry, music and so on. For example, imagine you find an example file for chemtex on the internet:

\documentclass[a4paper,12pt]{report}
\usepackage{chemtex}
\begin{document}

\initial
\begin{figure}[h]\centering
\parbox{.3\textwidth}{\ethene{H}{H$_3$C}{CH$_3$}{Br}}
\hfil
\parbox{.3\textwidth}{\cbranch{H}{S}{H}{S}{C}{S}{}{S}{H}
  \xi=-200 \cright{}{Q}{C}{D}{O}{S}{OH}}
\hfil
\parbox{.3\textwidth}{\hetisix{Q}{Q}{Q}{Q}{Q}{Q}{O}{Q}{O}
  \xi=-171 \fuseup{Q}{Q}{Q}{Q}{D}{Q}{D}{Q}{D}}
\caption{Chemie mit {\tt CHEMTEX}\label{a1}}
\end{figure}

\end{document}

Firstly, follow the documentation of the package and MiKTeX/MacTex in order to install the package. To check the package is working, you’ll want to put code like the above into a .latex file and test if you can compile it from the command line. Once you’ve confirmed that the package is available and working, we can integrate it with Anki.

To use the package with Anki, click "Add" in the main window, then click the note type selection button. Click the "Manage" button, then select the note type you plan to use and click "Options". The LaTeX header and footer are shown. The header will look something like:

\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\special{papersize=3in,5in}
\usepackage{amssymb,amsmath}
\pagestyle{empty}
\setlength{\parindent}{0in}
\begin{document}

To use chemtex, you’d add the usepackage line in the earlier example, so it looks like:

\documentclass[12pt]{article}
\special{papersize=3in,5in}
\usepackage{amssymb,amsmath}
\usepackage{chemtex}
\pagestyle{empty}
\setlength{\parindent}{0in}
\begin{document}

After that, you should be able to include lines like the following in your Anki cards:

[latex]\ethene{H}{H$_3$C}{CH$_3$}{Br}[/latex]

Template Conflicts

As of Anki 2.1.20 / AnkiMobile 2.0.56 / AnkiDroid 2.13, this workaround is no longer required, as {{field}} text inside fields no longer causes problems. If you need to support older versions and want to keep using this syntax, please make sure you place the {{=<% %>=}} string at the very top of your front and back template, as recent Anki versions will not recognize it anywhere but the start.

For older versions:

It’s not uncommon for {{ and }} to pop up in LaTeX code when writing mathematical equations. To ensure that your LaTeX equations don’t conflict with Anki’s field replacements, it’s possible to change the separator to something else.

For example, if you have a template:

{{latex field}}

Changing it to the following will make it unlikely that the LaTeX will conflict:

{{=<% %>=}}
<%latex field%>

Cloze Conflicts

Cloze deletions are terminated with }}, which can conflict with a }} appearing in your LaTeX. To prevent LaTeX from being interpreted as a closing cloze marker, you can put a space between any double closing braces that do not indicate the end of the cloze, so

{{c1::[$]\frac{foo}{\frac{bar}{baz}}[/$] blah blah blah.}}

will not work, but

{{c1::[$]\frac{foo}{\frac{bar}{baz} }[/$] blah blah blah.}}

will (and LaTeX ignores spaces in math mode, so your equation will render the same). If you want to avoid adding the extra space into the rendered text (for example, when you are making Cloze cards for learning programming languages), another option is to use a HTML comment when editing the card in HTML mode:

{{c1::[$]\frac{foo}{\frac{bar}{baz}<!-- -->}[/$] blah blah blah.}}

You may use either workaround if you need to use the :: character sequence within the Cloze-deleted text. The first card generated for the following note text will read [type] in C++ is a type-safe union:

{{c1::std:<!-- -->:variant::~type~}} in C++ is a {{c2::type-safe union}}

Unsafe commands

Anki prohibits certain commands like \input or \def from being used on cards or in templates, because allowing them could allow malicious shared decks to damage your system. (To be on the safe side, these commands are prohibited even in comments, so if you’re getting this error but don’t think you’ve used one, please double-check any comments you have in your headers, templates, and cards.) If you need to use these commands, please add them to a system package and import that package as described in the previous section.

Leeches

Leeches are cards that you keep on forgetting. Because they require so many reviews, they take up a lot more of your time than other cards.

Anki can help you identify leeches. Each time a review card 'lapses' (is failed while it is review mode), a counter is increased. When that counter reaches 8, the note is tagged as a leech, and the card is suspended. The threshold, and whether to suspend or not, can be adjusted in the deck options.

Anki will continue to issue leech warnings periodically for a difficult card. The warning interval is half the initial leech threshold. That is, if you have Anki configured to warn at 8 lapses, future warnings will happen every 4 lapses. (12, 16, etc)

Once a leech is found, there are a number of ways you can handle it.

Waiting

Some leeches are caused by 'interference'. For example, an English learner may have recently learnt the words "disappoint" and "disappear". As they look similar, the learner may find themselves confusing the two when trying to answer. In these situations, it’s often productive to concentrate on just one idea. When that idea is firmly ingrained in your mind, you can then return to learning the other idea. So in these situations, you may want to leave one of the words suspended until you have learnt the other one well, and then unsuspend it in the browser.

Deleting

Another way to manage leeches is to delete them. Consider if the material you’re struggling with is important enough to make it worth your while. By selectively deleting difficult and obscure items, you can dedicate more time to learning other material, and studying becomes a lot more fun.

Editing

Another approach is to change the way the information is presented. Perhaps the cards you have created have too much information on them, or perhaps you’re trying to memorize something without fully understanding it. Sometimes spending some time changing the way the card is phrased can help. It’s also a good time to think about making a mnemonic to help you remember.

Add-ons

Anki's capabilities can be extended with add-ons. Add-ons can provide features like extra support for specific languages, extra control over scheduling, and so on.

To browse the list of available add-ons, select the Tools>Add-ons menu item, then click on Get Add-ons.

Many add-on authors include their email address in the add-on, so if you need to get in touch with the author, editing the add-on and looking at the top of the file may help.

If you have downloaded an add-on that is not working properly, or if you accidentally made a mistake when editing an add-on, you can use the "Delete" option in the menu to remove it.

To learn how to write your own add-ons, please see the add-on writing guide.

Miscellanea

On Windows/Linux you can hold down the Alt key and press a highlighted letter to activate a particular menu.

OS X doesn’t support this feature, but it does allow you to assign shortcuts to specific menu items instead. Please see http://lifehacker.com/343328/create-a-keyboard-shortcut-for-any-menu-action-in-any-program for more information.

Debug Console

Sometimes you may be asked to use the debug console to change a setting or check something. Unless asked to enter text in the "debug console", you will probably not need this. Advanced users may like to read more about it in the add-on writing guide.

When asked to enter text into the "debug console", please start Anki, and in the main window, press

Ctrl+Shift+;

(the control key, shift key, and semi-colon key at the same time)

On a Mac, press

Command+Shift+;

(the command key, shift key, and semi-colon key at the same time)

On some non-English keyboards, you may need to press : or + instead of ;.

In the window that has popped up, please paste the text you were asked to paste in the top section. When you’ve done so, please press Ctrl+Return (Command+Return on a Mac), and some text should appear in the bottom section. If you’ve been asked to paste the resulting output, please copy it from the bottom area, and paste it back to the support person.

If you press Ctrl+Shift+Return instead of just Ctrl+Return, Anki will try to print the result rather than doing what you asked it to. If you are getting unexpected errors, please make sure you’re not holding down the Shift key.

Contributing

Sharing Decks Publicly

To share decks with the general public, synchronize them with AnkiWeb, then log into AnkiWeb and click on "Share" from the menu next to the deck you wish to share.

If you shared a deck previously (including with previous versions of Anki), you can update it by clicking "Share" as above. Updating a shared deck will not reset the download counts or ratings. You can delete a shared deck that you have uploaded using the Delete button on the shared deck's page.

When updating a deck, AnkiWeb expects the deck to be at the same location as before. If you shared a deck when it was called "Korean Verbs" for example, and then renamed it to "Korean::Korean Verbs", resharing will not be able to update the existing copy. If you have forgotten the original name, please contact support.

When you update a shared deck, users who downloaded the deck previously will not automatically receive updates. If they download the deck again and re-import it, newly added material will be imported without altering their existing study progress, provided neither you nor the user has altered the note type since the first import.

Sharing Decks Privately

If you’d like to share decks with a limited group of people (such as a study group or class) rather than the general public, you can do so by sharing them outside of AnkiWeb.

To share a deck privately, go to the File menu and choose Export. Select a single deck (not "All Decks"), and turn off "include scheduling information". This will produce an .apkg file which you can share with others.

You can share the .apkg file by emailing it to people, placing it on a website or shared folder, or using a free file sharing service like Dropbox or Google Drive and sending people a link.

Both the computer version and mobile clients make it easy to import from an apkg file simply by clicking or tapping on it. AnkiWeb does not have the ability to import apkg files however, so the recipients of your deck will need to have the computer version or Anki on their mobile device.

When a user imports an .apkg file, cards that already exist in their collection will be ignored and any new cards will be added. As long as they use the same note type, modified cards will also be updated. To prevent data loss, cards that have been deleted in the new apkg file will not be deleted in the user’s collection, so if you need to delete cards from users' decks for whatever reason, you will need to contact them about it.

Sharing Add-ons

Please see https://addon-docs.ankiweb.net/sharing.html

Translating Anki

Please see https://translating.ankiweb.net

Contributing Code

Anki's source code is available at https://github.com/ankitects/anki

Before contributing, please see the README.contributing file in that repo.

Часто задаваемые вопросы

Please see https://faqs.ankiweb.net

Ресурсы

На сайте SuperMemo есть много полезной информации относительно интервальных повторений и памяти: http://www.supermemo.com/

Michael Nielsen has written a thorough piece about long term memory and how he uses Anki. He also provides a condensed version as a series of tweets.

Some medical students have banded together to make a paid-for guide focusing on the use of Anki in medical school: https://courses.ankipalace.com/